The Open Text Based Assessment Class 9 ( OTBA class 9 2017 ) is for use in Summative Assessment II and Annual Examination of Class XI, 2017. The Latest CBSE Syllabus for year 2017 OR Previous Year papers may be referred for details of assessment through OTBA. Each text material includes sample questions and with marking scheme.
We are providing extra questions along with answers for better practice of these materials. Students are required to apply the knowledge gained in the unit specified ( Quadrilaterals and Areas of parallelogram & triangles ) in the syllabus. Download OTBA material or Buy NCERT Books and read, discuss with classmates and analyze the material with regard to, objectives, concepts involved, application of concepts to given situations, description and further exploration of the case/ problem/ situation involved, enhancement of higher order thinking skills involved and different perspectives.
Open Text Based Assessment Class 9 for 2016 – 2017
What are different types of wastes?
a) Various wastes are
b) Municipal solid wastes
c) Biomedical wastes
d) Electronic waste
e) Industrial waste
f) Plastic waste.
What are the issues about Solid Waste Management now a days?
a) The issues are as follows:
b) Less awareness about reducing waste at source.
c) Lack of segregation, poor collection, illegal dumping, open dumping and burning of waste.
d) Limited involvement of private sector and communities.
d) Relying on Landfills & Composting.
e) Generation of the Green House Gases.
Why is Solid Waste Management (SWM) an issue of serious concern to us?
Solid Waste Management (SWM) has been an issue of serious concern in a densely populated country like India and this concern is in terms of both health and environment. This issue arise due to lack of awareness, open dumping, burning of waste, etc. and usage of conventional methods in handling waste.
What are the reason for outbreak of recent vector borne diseases?
Recent outbreak of vector borne diseases like dengue, chikungunya, malaria and typhoid were due to profuse and unhygienic method of dumping waste in the open.
What are the Objective of Solid Waste Management (SWM) system?
Objective of Solid Waste Management system:
a) To control, collect, process and dispose solid waste in an economical and consistent way with public health protection.
b) To reduce the quantity of toxic and hazardous chemicals and materials.
c) To maintain waste recycling programs regularly.
d) To reuse and recover the material from waste.
What are the steps towards waste management?
Waste management involves
(a) Its collection at source.
(b) Its transport.
(c) Various treatments according to the type of waste.
(d) Disposal of treated waste
What was the objective of framing MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) Management and Handling Rules 2000?
Under the Environmental Protection Act, 1986 the Govt. of India framed Management and Handling Rules 2000, for issuing the guidelines for collection, handling and disposal of solid wastes, as more than 25Va of municipal solid waste is not collected at all. Municipal waste mainly consists of household waste, construction and demolition debris, sanitation residue etc.
What is Bioreactor Technology in waste degradation?
Bioreactor technology is an environmental friendly technique in which microbial cultures are used to treat the waste produced and is converted into compost or manures by using the enzymes present in the microbes. Thus, reducing the amount of waste and also generating useful product from the same.
What are the advantages of bioreactor technology?
(a) Bioreactor technology reduces time for waste degradation and increased gas generation.
(b) It allows efficient conversion of waste into electricity.
What is meant by Waste Hierarchy?
The waste hierarchy simply deals with categorization of the waste in 5R’s category i.e. reduce, reuse and recycle, refuse and regenerate. The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of waste.
State the objectives of solid waste management.
(i) To control, collect, process and dispose solid waste in an economical and consistent way with public health protection.
(ii) To reduce the quantity of toxic and hazardous chemicals and materials.
(iii) To maintain waste recycling programs regularly.
(iv) To reuse and recover the material from waste.
What are the hazards of plastic waste?
Non-judicious disposal of plastics leads to the choking of drains, reducing the soil fertility, killing animals on ingestion and hindering the recharge of groundwater. Thus, conventional plastics, right from their manufacture to their disposal are a major problem to the environment. As per Plastic waste (Management and handling), Rules, 2011, a State Level Advisory committee has to be constituted to oversee the handling, use and disposing of plastic waste. The rules have introduced the concept of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) for the first time with respect to plastic waste.
What can one do for an effective SWM?
As an individual, a person can generate awareness amongst people for solid waste management. Following ideas can be shared to reduce solid waste –
(a) Segregation at source i.e., in our homes, schools, offices etc. we should segregate biodegradable from non-biodegradable wastes.
(b) One should manage kitchen waste by making a compost pit and decomposing all the kitchen and garden waste there to make compost.
(c) Reuse bags as much as Possible.
(d) Recyclable goods must be sorted and sent for proper processing units etc.
How does the hazardous and Other Wastes (Management and Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2016 help in reducing load on country’s resources?
The Hazardous and Other Wastes (Management and Trans-boundary Movement) Rules, 2016 notified by the Ministry of Environment distinguish hazardous waste from others such as waste tyres, paper waste, metal scrap and used electronic items. The rules recognize the latter as a resource for recycling and their reuse thereby adding to the country’s GDP and reducing the load on the country’s resources.
How can we save Yamuna?
Sometimes producers of products or services accept a degree of responsibility for the wastes that result from the products they market, by reducing materials used in production, making recyclable goods, and reducing packaging. Yamuna is polluted due to dumping of solid wastes and creating problems to treat the water. If the segregation of the waste is performed at the source level than the additional cost of water treatment can be saved and water can be purified easily. Since Yamuna mainly has industrial pollution, so the industries should, as producers, take responsibility to reduce the discharge of effluents into the river.
Why is state of the art technology along with planning required for scientific disposal of waste, in future?
Our country needs policy and guidelines to enable the municipal corporations to run the waste services efficiently. In our country, practices and methodologies used for SWM are still following the unscientific and inefficient methods and are mainly dependent on the informal sector. Besides, owing to the population explosion, enormous amount of waste is generated leading to the overflowing landfills. These overburdened landfills pose serious implications including environmental, health, air, water and soil pollution and even global warming. Adding to the woes is the large scale dependence on the informal sector for waste segregation, disposal and recycling working on outdated technology.
What is role of Rag Picker in waste management? Describe the health risk in such people.
Rag Picker segregate mixed waste into paper, plastic and bottles. They get income which is just enough to survive. Waste pickers work for about six days per week and around 9-12 hours per day without protective gear. This puts them at a risk of frequent injuries like cuts and bruises. The disposal of plastic also carries severe health risks as it contains heavy metals like lead, copper, cobalt, selenium, cadmium, and chromium, which are highly toxic.
State the main reasons and issues regarding solid waste management.
SWM is a serious concern as ours is a densely populated country and it affects both the health and the environment. The chief issues regarding SWM are
(i) Less awareness about reducing waste at source.
(ii) Lack of segregation, poor collection, illegal dumping, burning of waste.
(iii) Limited involvement of private sector.
(iv) Relying on landfills and composting.
(v) Generation of greenhouse gases.
What would happen if human beings live in unhygienic conditions with poor sanitation?
Unhygienic conditions are major cause of diarrhoea and leads to other major diseases such as cholera, schistosomiasis, and trachoma.
What are social aspects of environment which influence health?
Individual’s working environment presents many potential dangers with almost any form of employment such as:
1. Repetitive strain injury in the office place.
2. Stress related illness in the customer care industries.
3. Labour jobs such as coal miners are at high risk of breathing problems.
4. Family relationships, friends, and peers in the school or work place. These relationships can produce negative peer pressure and potential bullying.
Why are plastic bottles harmful for human beings?
A chemical, Bisphenol A (BPA) has been frequently used in plastic bottles. Which is harmful to humans as it interferes with their hormone levels and possibility of human reproductive disorders is increased.
How does mercury (from waste or sewage) enter into our nervous system?
When liquid waste or sewage discharged into a river or the sea mercury enters water resources and gets absorbed by naturally occurring bacteria present there and is converted into another form ‘methyl mercury. If fishes tainted by mercury are consumed by any human, the mercury acting as neurotoxin, interferes with his / her brain and nervous system.
What are the effect of tobacco on human being?
Tobacco smoke has been identified as a major airborne chemical risk to health. It causes a number of diseases like lung cancer, chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Smoking adversely affects the immune system, thereby making smokers more prone to the respiratory infections.
What is the role of EPA in protecting environment?
EPA is Environmental Protection Agency of United States. According to EPA, “If high levels of pesticides are used for long time it may cause birth defects, nerve damage and cancer.” So, EPA monitors pesticide use.
What were the common health problems after the Bhopal Gas Tragedy (in December 2, 1984)?
People were seen suffering from common ailments of the poor, such as tuberculosis and anaemia. High incidence of lung, eye disease, morbidity, cancer, mental problems and birth defects were also found in the victims.
Why should one think twice before using cosmetics?
Various cosmetic products contain different kind of chemicals. Phthalates in nail polish and perfumes is linked to birth defects. While shampoos containing selenium sulphide, used against dandruff is carcinogenic.
Global warming due to excess greenhouse gases has shown consequences that are affecting human health. What are the ill effects?
Greenhouse gases are responsible for hole in ozone layer present after outer most part of our atmosphere. These ozone hole has led to excess UV radiation reaching the earth. Exposure to UV radiation increases possibility of skin cancer as melanoma and cataract.
According to the PPCB-PGIMER Report, what were the basic reasons for the contamination in Bathinda (Punjab)?
The PPCB-PGIMER Report, found that Bathinda surface water was contaminated with arsenic, cadmium, chromium, selenium and mercury. The waste water generated from industry was drained mostly or partially untreated in the local drains, which had led to the pollution of these drains. Pesticides such as heptachlor, ethion and chlorpyrifos were also higher in samples of drinking water, vegetables and blood in the cotton belt of Punjab.
Fertilizers are essential for agricultural purposes, but they also impose danger to human health. How?
Nitrate is important composition of fertilizers and is essential for plant growth. However, high content of Nitrate is found in water due to fertilizer leaching. Sometimes high content of Nitrate is found in water, which mostly arises due to fertilizer leaching. This increases the risk of methaemoglobinaemia (‘blue babies’) in bottle infants which occurs very rarely.
Why is sanitation important?
Sanitation is important for –
(a) Maintaining healthy environment so as to improve quality of life and increasing years of healthy life.
(b) To discard the waste material properly ensuring healthier and happier life.
(c) To maintain the atmosphere free from excess of harmful microbes and particles.
(d) To ensure well cleaned and ecologically balanced environment, free of natural disasters and pollution.
Mention the points which are required to be consider before making a home for living?
Following points must keep in mind for making a home:
1. Radon is a radioactive gas found in the soil. Our house should be free from Radon as its long term exposure is one of the major cause of lung cancer.
2. Indoor moisture is an important component, it provides favourable conditions for growing mold. Hence it is suggested to test the presence of indoor moisture and mold content.
3. It has been found that paints and plastic pipes contain heavy metals like lead. We should use the paints and plastic pipes that are free from toxic metals and are environment – friendly.
4. For maintaining large lawns use of pesticides and grass cutter machine is common. It causes air as well as noise pollution
What can you do to reduce your exposure to harmful chemicals which are being used in daily life?
The following Suggestive Measures may help from these harmful chemicals:
Using environment friendly and natural products. Make self-aware about the chemicals harmful to us. Look out for the labels found on the products that display the names of their ingredients. Read the label, think over it and act accordingly. Strongly say ‘No’ to the products that contain harmful chemicals. Avoid using plastic bottles, its wear and tear releases toxic chemicals. Then what may be the possible alternatives. Glass is considered as one of the best and safe alternative. Avoid storing food items/eatables in plastic containers and heating food in plastic containers in micro-oven. On heating, plastic releases harmful chemicals into the food. When such food is consumed, these chemicals enter our body.
Listening to the Ram’s statement:
“In my field I used, to join, the opposite corners with ropes of equal length and the areas of the opposite triangles formed were equal.”
Roshni concluded that his farm might be rectangle or square. Do you agree with her opinion? Give the properties of quadrilateral to arrive this conclusion.
Listening to Dorjee’s statement:
“My farm was adjacent to Krishna’s farm and one side was along the boundary. In my farm all sides were equal.”
Roshni concluded that farm must be in the shape of a rhombus or square. Do you agree with her opinion? Justify.
Description of Nekchand’s field:
“In my field when I used to join the opposite corners with ropes, the lengths of the ropes required were equal and the two ropes bisected each other.”
Listening to Nekchand’s description about his field, Roshni concluded that his field might be a square or a rectangle. Do you agree with her opinion? Justify.
In Open Text Based Assessment Class 9 (OTBA class 9 & 11 2017 ) the textual content related to the theme will be provided with the question paper during SA – 2 examination. The teachers should give homework to guide the students and encourage open responses in solving situations. Students should develop ( and discuss with classmate ) more such questions which are based on the given text but require answers through application of learn concepts, further research and additional readings. It is important that a student must be able to present his/her arguments logically, coherently and cogently, so they should use their NCERT Exemplar Books also to clear the concept. Due credit will be given to the relevance of the content, analysis, logical presentation of arguments and conclusions drawn in the answer. Students should refer Vedic Maths to improve their mental ability.
Open Text Based Assessment Class 11 for 2016 – 2017
Frequently Asked Questions
Query 1: Will the Open Text Based Assessment Class 9 ( OTBA class 9 2017 ) marks will also be part of Summative Assessment I? If these are parts of SAI then what will be the maximum marks for each subject 90 or 100? If not then how these marks will be reflected in the Report Card?
Reply: The OTBA has been introduced in Summative Assessment II only. Hence till further directions are issued, both SA I and SA II will be of 90 Marks only. The Report Card will reflect grade points/ grades based on Students performance in Formative Assessments 1,2,3,4 and Summative Assessments I and II.
Query 2: Are students allowed to carry the Open text material with them to the examination Center? Whether questions will be based on the same text material supplied to the schools?
Reply: The question paper in each main subject will have a separate section of 10 marks for open-text-based assessment (OTBA). The OTBA section will comprise of 2-3 questions based on that text The concerned open text theme will be supplied along with question paper . Hence, there is no need of carrying the Open Text material to the Examination Centre. The questions will be based on one of the two themes of open text material supplied to students in advance.
Query 3: Why is OTBA introduced in any three subjects of Class XI? Why not in all the subjects?
Reply: It has been decided to introduce OTBA in Class XI in only three subjects. Based on the feedback from teachers and students, the decision to extend it to more subjects will be taken.
Query 4: The Board has been placing more importance on assessment of higher order thinking skills. Is not recalling and remembering important for students?
Reply: The importance of recalling and remembering cannot be denied in the teaching learning process. Based on the knowledge of facts, figures, events, etc., that the learner is able to further process it, derive meaningful information and apply to new situations for further enrichment and extension of his/her learning. Hence it is very important that knowledge of facts and events is integral to the teaching learning process and used as a base to acquire more in-depth information and skills.
Query 5: With the introduction of OTBA the stress on students has increased as they will be required to study more for examination.
Reply: The Open Text Based Assessment Class 9 ( & 11 ) aims to reduce the learning stress on students in many ways. With the supply of text material to students in advance, sufficient time is given to students to process it and link the learnt concepts to given situation. Since the text material is also part of the Question paper, the student is relieved from the burden of remembering the content given there in.
Query 6: OTBA is introduced only in two languages, Hindi and English of Class IX. Can the school, not offering these two languages, assess students on Open Text material developed by them in other languages offered?
Reply: OTBA is an alternative mode of assessment which can be tried by teachers in any subject of their choice in formative assessment/s. However, as far as Summative Assessment is concerned, the question paper will be set as per the prescribed design and syllabus.
Query 7: Will the questions in examination be based on the open text material supplied to students?
Reply: The questions under OTBA Section will not be directly based on the text material supplied. Rather it will test the students’ ability to apply the learnt concepts (in the unit specified as per syllabus ) to the situation given in the open text material. The students will be tested on their ability to comprehend, analyze and interpret the given situation and offer suggestions and opinions on the given issues based on their knowledge of concepts.
Query 8: How will OTBA help the slow learners?
Reply: The role of teachers is to motivate all sections of learners and provide opportunities to students to apply theoretical concepts to a real-life scenario by encouraging active and group learning in the Class. It is expected that through cooperative learning and teachers’ encouragement and guidance, all students will strive ahead to achieve expected levels of learning.
Query 9: How should teachers take up open text material in class room situation?
Reply: The teachers are expected to read, discuss and analyze the open text material with respect to:
• Concepts involved
• Application of concepts to situation
• Description and further explanation of the Case/problem
• Higher Order thinking skills involved.
• Different perspectives.
They should then assign them to students in groups for further analysis and discussions.
Query 10: Are the sample questions on OTBA uploaded by the Board for classes IX & XI final or the Board will again supply questions for annual examination?
Reply: The Questions given along with the Open Text Based Assessment Class 9 (& 11) in different subjects are only as Samples. The teachers are expected to use them as base and develop more such open ended questions for use by students. The Examination Questions will be different from the ones given as Samples.
Query 11: The Board has announced that there will be OTBA in all the main subjects in class IX, but questions in Sanskrit and other languages are not there. So whether OTBA will be only in Hindi or the Board will supply the same for Sanskrit also?
Reply: The OTBA has been introduced at present in the five main subjects of Secondary level, ie, Hindi, English, Mathematics, Science and Social Science. For rest of the subjects/languages, the teachers are expected to follow prescribed syllabus and question paper design.