NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 16
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Digestion and Absorption: Solutions
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Important Notes on Digestion and Absorption
Different Types of Teeth
- Canine – for tearing
- Incisors – for cutting
- Premolars – for grinding
- Molars – for churning and grinding
- Peristalsis: The involuntary movement of the gut by which the food bolus is pushed forward.
- Deglutition: The process of swallowing of food bolus. It is partly voluntary and partly involuntary.
- Ruminants: The herbivores animals (e.g., cow, buffalo etc.) which have symbiotic bacteria in the human of their stomach which synthesize enzymes to hydrolyse cellulose into monosaccharides.
- Diarrhoea: The abnormal frequent discharge of semisolid or fluid faecal matter from the bowel.
- Vomiting: The ejection of stomach contents through the mouth, caused by antiperistalsis.
- Dysentery: Frequent watery stools often with blood and mucus and with pain, fever and causes dehydration.
More to Know
- Chyme: The semifluid mass into which food is converted by gastric secretion and which passes from the stomach into the small intestine.
- Gastric: Anything associated with stomach is given a prefix – gastric.
- Proenzyme: The inactive forms of enzymes.
- Sphincter: A flap like structure at various junctions of the alimentary canal which facilities one way traffic in the alimentary canal.
- Bolus: The masticated food mixed with saliva.
- Digestion: The process in alimentary canal by which the complex food is converted mechanically and biochemically into simple substances suitable for absorption and assimilation.
- Food: A substance which on taken and digested in the body provides material for growth, repair, energy, and reproduction, resistance from disease or regulation of body processes.
- Thecodont: The teeth embedded in the sockets of the jaw bone, e.g., in mammals.
Basic Steps of Holozoic Nutrition
- Ingestion: Intake of food.
- Digestion: Breaking down of complex organic food materials into simpler, smaller soluble molecules.
- Absorption and assimilation: Absorption of digested food into blood or lymph and its use in the body cells for synthesis of complex components.
- Egestion: Elimination of undigested food as faeces