NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 4 Animal Kingdom to Study online as well as available to download in PDF form free. Download NCERT Solutions based on latest and updated NCERT Books for CBSE course.
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Animal Kingdom: Solutions
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Important Terms on Animal Kingdom
- Asymmetrical: Cannot be divided into equal halves through median plane e.g., Sponges.
Radial symmetry: Any plane passing through central axis can divide organism into identical halves. e.g., coelentrates,Ctenophores and echinoderms.
- Bilateral symmetry: Only one plane can divide the organism into two identical left and right halves e.g., Annelids and Arthropods.
- Coelom (Body cavity which is lined by mesoderm)
- Coelomates: Have coelom e.g., Annelids, Arthropods, molluscs, Echinoderms, Chordates etc.
- Pseudocoelomates: No true coelem as mesoderm is present in scattered pouches between ectoderm and endoderm. e.,g., Aschelminthes.
- Acoelomates: Body cavity is absent e.g., Platyhelminthes.
- Metamerism: If body is externally and internally divided into segments (metameres) with serial repetition of atleast some organs, then phenomenon is called metamerism e.g., Earthworm.
- Pseudometamerism: Found in tapeworm. The proglottids (segments of tapeworm) budded off from neck not emryonic in origin.
- Notochord: Rod-like structure formed during embryonic development on t he dorsal side. It is mesodermally derived e.g., Chordates. Non-chordates do not have notochord .e.g., porifera to echinoderms.
- Also called as sea walnuts or comb jellies.
- Are exclusively marine, radially symmetrical.
- Have tissue level organisation, are diploblastic.
- Digestion both extra and intracellular.
- Body has eight external rows of ciliated comb plates for locomotion.
- Show Bioluminescence (Property of living organisms to emit light).
- Hermaphrodite (sexes are not separate).
- Only sexual reproduction occurs. Exernal fertilization. Indirect development. e.g., Ctenoplana, Pleurobrachia.
- Are aquatic or terrestrial, free-living or parasitic.
- Are bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic, organ-system level of organisation and metamerically segmented body.
- Are coelomate animals.
- Have longitudinal and circular muscles for locomation.
- Have closed circulatory system.
- Nereis (dioecious and aquatic annelid) has lateral appendages called parapodia for swimming.
- Have nephridia for osmoregulation and excretion.
- Neural system consists of paired gangila connected by lateral nerves to a double ventral nerve cord.
- Reproduction is sexual. e.g., Earthworm (Pheretima) and Leech (Hirudinaria) which are hermaph rodites (i.e., monoecious).