NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 13

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 13 Organisms and Populations to Study Online or download FREE in PDF form. NCERT Solutions based on latest NCERT Books are also given to download in PDF format.


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Solutions for 12 Biology Chapter 13




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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 13 Organisms and Populations
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 13




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Important Terms on 12 Biology Chapter 13
  1. Organisms: Organisms form the basic unit of study in ecology.
  2. Species: Organisms with similar features and the potential to interbreed among themselves and produce fertile offspring, constitute a species.
  3. Populations: Population is a group of individuals of the same species, inhabiting in a given area. Interspecific competition for basic needs operate among the individuals of population.
  4. Biological Community: Biological community is constituted by an assemblage of the populations of all different species that live in an area and interact with each other. A biotic community has a distinct species composition and structure.



Ecology

A branch of science that studies interactions among organisms and their physical environment. Ecology is basically concerned with four levels of biological organisation – Organisms, population, communities and biomes. Ramdeo Mishra is called as the Father of Ecology in India.

  • Ecosystem: Is a biological system in nature and composed of a biotic community integrated with its physical (abiotic) environment through the exchange of energy and recycling of the nutrients.
  • Biomes: Biomes is a very large unit, constituting of a major vegetation type and associate fauna found is a specified zone. Annual Variations is the intensity, duration of temperature and precipitation account for the formation of major biomes like desert, rain, forest and Tundra.
  • Habitat: Habitat is the place where an organism lives.
    Major Biomes of India: Tropical rain forest, deciduous forest, desert, sea coast. Regional and local variations within each biome lead to formation of a wide variety of habitats.



Niche
  • The ecological niche of an organism represents the range of conditions that it can tolerate the resources it utilises and its functional role in the ecological system. Each species occupies a distinct niche and no two species occupy the same niche.
  • Biosphere: It is the sum total of all the biomes on the earth.
  • Environment: Environment is a sum total of all biotic and abiotic factors that surround and potentially influence an organism. Temperature, water, light and soil are the major abiotic factors.