NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 14

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 14 Ecosystem to Study Online or download in PDF file format. NCERT Books and its Solutions based on New Curriculum is also given to download.


NCERT Solutions for class 12 Biology Chapter 14

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Solutions for 12 Biology Chapter 14




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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 14 Ecosystem
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 14




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12 Biology chapter 14

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Important Notes on 12 Biology Chapter 14
  • Ecosystem: It is the basic functional unit of biosphere in which living organisms interact among themselves and with their surrounding physical environment.
  • Detritus: Dead leaves, twigs, animal remains etc. constitute detritus.
  • Ecological succession: The successive and orderly replacement of one community by the other community in an area, over a period of time.



Stratification

Vertical distribution of different species occupying different levels in an ecosystem. Trees occupy top vertical strata, shrubs the second layer and herbs the third layer and herbs/grasses occupy the bottom layers.

  1. Primary Production: Amount of biomass or organic matter produced per unit area over a time period by plants during photosynthesis.
  2. Detritus: Dead leaves, twigs, animal remains etc. constitute detritus.
  3. Detrivore: Organisms who break down detritus into smaller particles, e.g., earthworm.
  4. Process of Decomposition: The decomposers break down complex organic matter into inorganic substances like carbon dioxide, water and nutrients. This process is called decomposition.
  • Gross Primary Productivity: Rate of production of organic matter during photosynthesis.
  • Net Primary Productivity: NPP = GPP-R (Gross primary productivity minus the respiration losses).
  • Secondary Productivity: Rate of formation of new organic matter by consumers.
  • Climax community: The stable and final biotic community that develops at the end of ecological succession and is in perfect harmony with its physical environment.
    Food Web: A number of food chains interconnected with each other forming a web-like pattern.



10 % Law of Energy Transfer

Ten percent law of energy transfer proposed by Lindeman. At each step of food chain, when energy is transferred from one tropic level to the next tropic level, only 10 percent of energy is passed on to the next trophic level.

Factors affecting decomposition – Decomposition is controlled by
  1. Chemical composition of detritus: The decomposition will slower if detritus is rich in lignin and chitin and will faster if detritus is rich in nitrogen and water soluble substance (sugar).
  2. Climatic factors: In warm and moist environment, the process of decomposition increases whereas low temperature and anaerobiosis inhibit the decomposition.