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Chapter 2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
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Important Terms on Chapter 2
- Autogamy: When pollen grains of a flower are transferred from anther to stigma of the same flower.
- Coleorhiza: A protective sheath of radicle in monocot seed.
- Coleoptile: A protective sheath of plumule in monocot seed.
- Nucellus: Multicellular tissue in the centre of ovule in which embryo sac is present.
- Viability of Seed: Ability of seed to retain the power of germination.
Sporopollenin is one of the most resistant organic substance. It is not affected by high temperature, strong acids or alkali. No enzyme can degrade it.
- Pollen Products: Pollen grains are rich in carbohydrates, proteins and unsaturated fats. Their consumption is believed to increase performance of athlete and horses. They are used in the form of tablets and syrups.
- Pollen Viability: Pollens of wheat and rice remain viable for 30 minutes. Pollens of same other plants may remain viable for several months. Pollens can be cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen (-196°C) in pollen banks.
- Dicot Embryo: A typical dicot embryo consist of an embryonal axis and two cotyledons. The portion of embryonal axis above the level of cotyledons is the epicotyl and the portion below the level of cotyledons is hypocotyl.
- Monocot Embryo: Monocot (Rice, Maize etc.) has one cotyledon called Scutellum. The embryonal axis has the radicle and root cap enclosed by a sheath called Coleorrhiza. The upper end (epicotyle) has plumule which is covered by hollow foliar structure called the coleoptile.
- Apomixis: Apomixis is a form of asexual repduction that mimics sexual reproduction where seeds are formed without fertilisation.
- Give the scientific name of a plant with came to India as a contaminant with imported wheat and causes pollen allergy.
- Why are pollen grains produced in enormous quantity in maize?
- In some species of Asteraceae and grasses, seed are formed without fusion of gametes. Mention the scientific term for such of reproduction.
- If the diploid number of chromosomes in an angiospermic plant is 16. Mention number of chromosomes in the endosperm and antipodal cell.
- Parthenium hysterophorus (carrot grass)
- To ensure pollination because Maize is pollinated by wind.
- Chromosomes in endosperm and 8 chromosomes in antipodal cells.