NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 3 The Delhi Sultans (अध्याय 3: दिल्ली के सुल्तान) free to View online or download in PDF form. All the NCERT Solutions are based on latest NCERT Books for the academic session 2019 – 2020.
NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 3
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The Delhi Sultans: Question answers
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7 Social Science – History – Chapter 3: Question Answers
Important Notes on Chapter 3
The transformation of Delhi into a capital that controlled vast areas of the subcontinent started with the foundation of the Delhi Sultanate in the beginning of the thirteenth century.
Although inscriptions, coins and architecture provide a lot of information, especially valuable are “histories”, tarikh (singular)/tawarikh (plural), written in Persian, the language of administration under the Delhi Sultans.
(1) The authors of tawarikh lived in cities (mainly Delhi) and hardly ever in villages.
(2) They often wrote their histories for Sultans in the hope of rich rewards.
(3) These authors advised rulers on the need to preserve an “ideal” social order based on birth right and gender distinctions. Their ideas were not shared by everybody.
In the early thirteenth century the control of the Delhi Sultans rarely went beyond heavily fortified towns occupied by garrisons. The Sultans seldom controlled the hinterland of the cities and were therefore dependent upon trade, tribute or plunder for supplies.
Internal & External Frontier
The first set of campaigns along the “internal frontier” of the Sultanate aimed at consolidating the hinterlands of the garrison towns. During these campaigns forests were cleared in the Ganga-Yamuna doab and huntergatherers and pastoralists expelled from their habitat.
The second expansion occurred along the “external frontier” of the Sultanate. Military expeditions into southern India started during the reign of Alauddin Khalji and culminated with Muhammad Tughluq.
The consolidation of a kingdom as vast as the Delhi Sultanate needed reliable governors and administrators. Rather than appointing aristocrats and landed chieftains as governors, the early Delhi Sultans, especially Iltutmish, favoured their special slaves purchased for military service, called bandagan in Persian.
The Khaljis and Tughluqs continued to use bandagan and also raised people of humble birth, who were often their clients, to high political positions.
Like the earlier Sultans, the Khalji and Tughluq monarchs appointed military commanders as governors of territories of varying sizes. These lands were called iqta and their holder was called iqtadar or muqti.