NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 7 Tribes, Nomads and Settled Communities (अध्याय 7: जनजातियाँ, खानाबदोश और एक जगह बसे हुए समुदाय) free to View online or download in PDF form. Download NCERT Solutions App based on latest NCERT Solutions on Updated CBSE Books 2019 – 20.
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Tribes, Nomads and Settled Communities: Question answers
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7 Social Science – History – Chapter 7: Question Answers
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Chapter 7: Tribes, Nomads and Settled Communities
Why were Beyond Big Cities: Tribal Societies?
There were, however, other kinds of societies as well. Many societies in the subcontinent did not follow the social rules and rituals prescribed by the Brahmanas. Nor were they divided into numerous unequal classes. Such societies are often called tribes. Many large tribes thrived in different parts of the subcontinent. They usually lived in forests, hills, deserts and places difficult to reach. Sometimes they clashed with the more powerful caste-based societies. In various ways, the tribes retained their freedom and preserved their separate culture.
Who were Tribal People?
Tribal people were found in almost every region of the subcontinent. The area and influence of a tribe varied at different points of time. Some powerful tribes controlled large territories. In Punjab, the Khokhar tribe was very influential during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Later, the Gakkhars became more important. In Multan and Sind, the Langahs and Arghuns dominated extensive regions before they were subdued by the Mughals.
Contemporary historians and travellers give very scanty information about tribes. A few exceptions apart, tribal people did not keep written records. Presentday historians have started using such oral traditions to write tribal histories.
How Nomads and Mobile People Lived?
Nomadic pastoralists moved over long distances with their animals. They lived on milk and other pastoral products. They also exchanged wool, ghee, etc., with settled agriculturists for grain, cloth, utensils and other products.
The Banjaras were the most important tradernomads. Their caravan was called tanda. Sultan Alauddin Khalji (Chapter 3) used the Banjaras to transport grain to the city markets. Emperor Jahangir wrote in his memoirs that the Banjaras carried grain on their bullocks from different areas and sold it in towns. They transported food grain for the Mughal army during military campaigns. With a large army there could be 100,000 bullocks carrying grain.