NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 Industries (उद्योग) to Study online in English Medium or download NCERT Solutions for the other subjects in PDF form as well as Online study without downloading.
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 5
Industries: Question Answers
8 Geography Chapter 5 Industries Solutions
Important Notes on Industries
Industry refers to an economic activity that is concerned with production of goods, extraction of minerals or the provision of services. Thus we have iron and steel industry (production of goods), coal mining industry (extraction of coal) and tourism industry (service provider).
Types of Industries
- Industries can be classified on the basis of raw materials, size and ownership.
- Ownership: Industries can be classified into private sector, state owned or public sector, joint sector and cooperative sector.
- Private sector industries are owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals.
- The public sector industries are owned and operated by the government, such as Hindustan Aeronautics Limited and Steel Authority of India Limited.
- Joint sector industries are owned and operated by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. Maruti Udyog Limited is an example of joint sector industry.
- Co-operative sector industries are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. Anand Milk Union Limited and Sudha Dairy are a success stories of a co-operative venture.
More about Industries
- Agro based industries use plant and animal based products as their raw materials. Food processing, vegetable oil, cotton textile, dairy products and leather industries are examples of agro-based industries.
- Marine based industries use products from the sea and oceans as raw materials. Industries processing sea food or manufacturing fish oil are some examples.
- Forest based industries utilise forest produce as raw materials. The industries associated with forests are pulp and paper, pharmaceuticals, furniture and buildings.
- Mineral based industries are primary industries that use mineral ores as their raw materials. The products of these industries feed other industries. Iron made from iron ore is the product of mineral based industry. This is used as raw material for the manufacture of a number of other products, such as heavy machinery, building materials and railway coaches.
Risk Reduction Measures
- Densely populated residential areas should be separated far away from the industrial areas.
- Fire warning and fighting system should be improved.
- Storage capacity of toxic substances should be limited.
- Pollution dispersion qualities in the industries should be improved.