NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 6
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Colonialism and the City: Question Answers
8 History Chapter 6 Colonialism and the City Solutions
Important terms on Colonialism and the City
Cities under Colonial Rule
- In most parts of the Western world modern cities emerged with industrialisation. In Britain, industrial cities like Leeds and Manchester grew rapidly in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, as more and more people sought jobs, housing and other facilities in these places. However, unlike Western Europe, Indian cities did not expand as rapidly in the nineteenth century.
- In the late eighteenth century, Calcutta, Bombay and Madras rose in importance as Presidency cities. They became the centres of British power in the different regions of India. Many towns manufacturing specialised goods declined due to a drop in the demand for what they produced. Old trading centres and ports could not survive when the flow of trade moved to new centres. Cities such as Machlipatnam, Surat and Seringapatam were deurbanised during the nineteenth century. By the early twentieth century, only 11 per cent of Indians were living in cities.
‘Delhis’ before New Delhi
As many as 14 capital cities were founded in a small area of about 60 square miles on the left bank of the river Jamuna. Of these, the most important are the capital cities built between the twelfth and seventeenth centuries. The most splendid capital of all was built by Shah Jahan. Shahjahanabad was begun in 1639 and consisted of a fort-palace complex and the city adjoining it. Lal Qila or the Red Fort, made of red sandstone, contained the palace complex. The main streets of Chandni Chowk and Faiz Bazaar were broad enough for royal processions to pass. There was no place higher than this mosque within the city then. Delhi during Shah Jahan’s time was also an important centre of Sufi culture. It had several dargahs, khanqahs and idgahs. Open squares, winding lanes, quiet cul-desacs and water channels were the pride of Delhi’s residents.
Making of New Delhi
In 1803, the British gained control of Delhi after defeating the Marathas. Since the capital of British India was Calcutta, the Mughal emperor was allowed to continue living in the palace complex in the Red Fort. The modern city developed only after 1911 when Delhi became the capital of British India.