NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 7 Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners (बुनकर, लोहा बनाने वाले और फैक्ट्री मालिक) to Study online or download in PDF form free with latest NCERT Books to free download. Get the Answers of your questions with your friends and experts.
|Subject:||Social Science (History)|
|Chapter 7:||Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners|
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 7
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Important Terms on Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners
The Story of Crafts and Industry in British rule
The crafts and industries of India during British rule by focusing on two industries, namely, textiles and iron and steel. Both these industries were crucial for the industrial revolution in the modern world. Mechanised production of cotton textiles made Britain the foremost industrial nation in the nineteenth century. The industrialisation of Britain had a close connection with the conquest and colonisation of India. With the growth of industrial production, British industrialists began to see India as a vast market for their industrial products and over time manufactured goods from Britain began flooding India.
The textile production in 1750, before the British conquered Bengal, India was by far the world’s largest producer of cotton textiles. Indian textiles had long been renowned both for their fine quality and exquisite craftsmanship. They were extensively traded in Southeast Asia (Java, Sumatra and Penang) and West and Central Asia. From the sixteenth century European trading companies began buying Indian textiles for sale in Europe.
There are many other words which point to the popularity of Indian textiles in Western markets. The
English East India Company sent to its representatives in Calcutta in 1730. The order that year was for 5,89,000 pieces of cloth. These were known by their common name in the European trade as piece goods – usually woven cloth pieces that were 20 yards long and 1 yard wide.
Amongst the pieces ordered in bulk were printed cotton cloths called chintz, cossaes (or khassa) and bandanna. The word chintz comes from the Hindi word chhint, a cloth with small and colourful flowery designs. From the 1680s there started a craze for printed Indian cotton textiles in England and Europe mainly for their exquisite floral designs, fine texture and relative cheapness. Rich people of England including the Queen herself wore clothes of Indian fabric. Similarly, the word bandanna now refers to any brightly coloured and printed scarf for the neck or head. Originally, the term derived from the word “bandhna” (Hindi for tying), and referred to a variety of brightly coloured cloth produced through a method of tying and dying.
What kinds of cloth had a large market in Europe?
Indian cotton textiles which were of fine quality and intricate design had a large market in Europe.
What is jamdani?
Jamdani is a fine muslin on which decorative motifs are woven on loom. Such motifs were usually made in gray and white.
What is bandanna?
A printed scarf for neck or head is called bandanna.
Who are the Agaria?
Agaria are a community from Chhattisgarh. They were the expert iron smelters in the Chhotanagpur plateau.
Fill in the blank: The word chintz comes from the word _________.
The word chintz comes from the word Chhint.
How do the names of different textiles tell us about their histories?
Many words in English and other languages; in current usage; show the proof of the flourishing trade between India and other parts of the world. For example; the word “muslin” was used to refer to all finely woven textiles. This word has originated from Mosul which is in present day Iraq. This was the place where European traders first became aware about fine cotton cloth from India. The Arab merchants used to bring find cotton cloths in Mosul.
Why did the wool and silk producers in England protest against the import of Indian textiles in the early eighteenth century?
By the early eighteenth century, the wool and silk makers in England were worried by the popularity of Indian textiles. Hence, they began to protest against the import of Indian cotton textiles.
How did the development of cotton industries in Britain affect textile producers in India?
The development of cotton industries in Britain affected the textile producers in India in various ways. British textiles were now giving competition to Indian textiles in the European and American markets. High import duties in England made it difficult to export textiles from India. Thus, the British manufactures cotton textiles ousted the Indian textiles from their traditional markets in Africa, America and Europe; by the beginning of the nineteenth century.
Why did the Indian iron smelting industry decline in the nineteenth century?
Import of steel ingots from Britain gradually led to decline or the Indian iron smelting industry in the nineteenth century. The new forest laws were also responsible for this because finding wood and charcoal was becoming more difficult. New forest laws also restricted the smelters’ access to iron ore mines.
What problems did the Indian textile industry face in the early years of its development?
The textiles industry of India faced many problems in the first few decades of its existence. Competing with cheap textiles imported from Britain was difficult. The governments of most of the European countries protected their local industries by heavy import duties. The colonial government in India did not provide such protection to local industries.
What helped TISCO expand steel production during the First World War?
The First World War changed the situation. Steel produced in Britain was being utilized to meet the demands of the war. As a result, the Indian Railways turned to TISCO for supply of rails. The TISCO also produced shells and carriage wheels for the war. By 1919, the colonial government was buying 90% of the steel manufactured by TISCO. Gradually, TISCO became the biggest steel industry within the British Empire.