NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 7 Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners (बुनकर, लोहा बनाने वाले और फैक्ट्री मालिक) to Study online or download in PDF form free with latest NCERT Books to free download.
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 7
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Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners: Question Answers
8 History Chapter 7 Weavers, Iron Smelters & Factory Owners Solutions
Important Terms on Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners
The Story of Crafts and Industry in British rule
The crafts and industries of India during British rule by focusing on two industries, namely, textiles and iron and steel. Both these industries were crucial for the industrial revolution in the modern world. Mechanised production of cotton textiles made Britain the foremost industrial nation in the nineteenth century. The industrialisation of Britain had a close connection with the conquest and colonisation of India. With the growth of industrial production, British industrialists began to see India as a vast market for their industrial products and over time manufactured goods from Britain began flooding India.
The textile production in 1750, before the British conquered Bengal, India was by far the world’s largest producer of cotton textiles. Indian textiles had long been renowned both for their fine quality and exquisite craftsmanship. They were extensively traded in Southeast Asia (Java, Sumatra and Penang) and West and Central Asia. From the sixteenth century European trading companies began buying Indian textiles for sale in Europe.
There are many other words which point to the popularity of Indian textiles in Western markets. The
English East India Company sent to its representatives in Calcutta in 1730. The order that year was for 5,89,000 pieces of cloth. These were known by their common name in the European trade as piece goods – usually woven cloth pieces that were 20 yards long and 1 yard wide.
Amongst the pieces ordered in bulk were printed cotton cloths called chintz, cossaes (or khassa) and bandanna. The word chintz comes from the Hindi word chhint, a cloth with small and colourful flowery designs. From the 1680s there started a craze for printed Indian cotton textiles in England and Europe mainly for their exquisite floral designs, fine texture and relative cheapness. Rich people of England including the Queen herself wore clothes of Indian fabric. Similarly, the word bandanna now refers to any brightly coloured and printed scarf for the neck or head. Originally, the term derived from the word “bandhna” (Hindi for tying), and referred to a variety of brightly coloured cloth produced through a method of tying and dying.