NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Political Science Chapter 3 Equality with question answers, extra questions updated for new session 2022-2023. Class 11 Political Science chapter 3 of Political Theory are equally important for CBSE and State board students.

Some people argue that inequality is natural while others maintain that it is equality which is natural and the inequalities which we notice around us are created by society. Which view do you support? Give reasons.

Both of the view differs from the idea of equality. Some says it’s natural while others claim it to be a creation of the society.
Equality means being equal or having the same value. It is the equal treatment of people irrespective of their social, cultural or economic differences without any sense of.
There is a difference between inequality and equality.
Inequality is the result of unequal opportunities in the society and exploitation by the dominant. Natural inequalities are the different capability, talents and physical- emotional skills.
Different social situations and opportunity provides a field to these individual to develop their interest and talents. There are different roles assigned to people for a balanced and smooth running of the society but these are sometimes decided and influenced by the society on the basis for race, gender, caste, class, language etc. which creates stereotype and inequality.
Natural inequalities:
1. These inequalities emerge due to differences in personal traits either physical, or mental or emotional.
2. These inequalities are the result of different characteristics and abilities of inborn qualities of a man.
3. These natural differences cannot be changed also.
Social inequalities:

    1. Socially produced inequalities are emerged as a result of unequal opportunities, i.e. family background, educational factors, etc.
    2. Social differences reflect the values of society, which may appear to be unjust.

To conclude we can say that:

    • The discrimination’s based on gender, color, race, etc. have been made by society rather than based on inborn characteristics.
    • Some natural differences have become alterable also, i.e. progress in medical sciences and technology has helped to several disabled persons to work more efficiently.
    • Certain inequalities have been existing for centuries seem justified, and based on natural inequalities, i.e. women are considered weaker than man in every aspect, hence to deny them equal rights is considered the justifiable.

There is a view that absolute economic equality is neither possible nor desirable. It is argued that the most a society can do is to try and reduce the gaps between the richest and poorest members of society. Do you agree?

Economic equality refers to the availability of equal opportunities to all present in the society, without any discrimination:
Absolute economic equality of income has never existed in society. But the democratic set up tries to provide equal opportunities to at least those who are capable and possess potential with equal opportunities, inequalities may exist between individuals, but one’s position may be improved with the sincere efforts in the society.
Economic inequalities:
1. Economic inequality exists if there are differences in the wealth, property or income between the different sections of society.
2. It enhances the gap between the upper, middle, poor-rich and person who are below poverty line.
Measurement of economic inequalities:

    1. To guess the number of people who are living below poverty line.
    2. To find out the differences between the rich and poor.

Importance of economic equality:

    • Guarantees each and every individual equal opportunity to improve one’s potential and capabilities.
    • Reduces the gap between the rich and the poor or high or middle class, etc.
      Economic disparities can make society more violent because the reforms cannot take place in such a society.
A government report on farmers’ problems says that small and marginal farmers cannot get good prices from the market. It recommends that the government should intervene to ensure a better price but only for small and marginal farmers. Is this recommendation consistent with the principle of equality?

Yes, this recommendation is consistent on the basis of the principle of equality:

    • A democratic country should have the provisions to protect the interests of small and marginal farmers.
    • The small and the marginal farmers can get assistance from government for their betterment.
    • The farmers (medium and small) can get social, economic and political justice due to these arrangements.

In the welfare and socialist society, the interest and rights of marginal farmers should be secured and promoted by the government so that they can have an economically reasonable and balanced life and get full support by the government. This will help the small marginalized farmers to get in a better position in all spheres of the society, as they do not have access to sufficient resources to sustain themselves during the off-season of their crops. Therefore, they need return for their product they produce in the market.

Here are some arguments in favour of the right to vote for women. Which of these are consistent with the idea of equality? Give reasons.

(a) Women are our mothers. We shall not disrespect our mothers by denying them the right to vote.
(b) Decisions of the government affect women as well as men, therefore they also should have a say in choosing the rulers.
(c) Not granting women the right to vote will cause disharmony in the family.
(d) Women constitute half of humanity. You cannot subjugate them for long by denying them the right to vote.

(a) This argument is not in consistent with the idea of equality because this has an additional emotional direction of thoughts than being based on the principles of equality.
(b) This argument is consistent with the idea of equality because government decisions effects everyone thus in the process of decision making equal representation of men and women should be there as women constitutes half of the world’s population. Hence they have a right to choose their decision makers.
(c) This argument is not in consistent with the idea of equality because it is leaning towards the disintegration and stress in the family rather by providing equal opportunities to women to choose their desired representatives.
(d) This argument is consistent with the idea of equality because this argument is based on rational thinking and indicates high time to let women make their own decisions and provide them with equal rights. Men and women have equal position in the society so equal importance and opportunity should be provided to them.

Class 11 Political Science Chapter 3 Equality
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