NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Indian Economic Development Chapter 9 MCQ Environment and Sustainable Development designed for CBSE exams 2024-25. Get here class 12 Economics chapter 9 Multiple Choice Questions with extra practice question answers.

Class 12 Indian Economic Development Chapter 9 MCQ


In which of the following layers of the atmosphere is ozone shield found?

[A]. Troposphere
[B]. Exosphere
[C]. Stratosphere
[D]. Mesosphere

Absorptive capacity is defined as

[A]. Ability of the government to absorb degradation
[B]. Resource generation within the assimilating capacity of the environment
[C]. Average number of organisms living in a given environment
[D]. The minimum population surviving in the world as a whole

In 1997, a UN conference on climate change was held in

[A]. India
[B]. China
[C]. Germany
[D]. Japan

GHGs refer to

[A]. Green Home Gases
[B]. Greenhouse Gases
[C]. Green Hurricane Gases
[D]. Green Home Guards

State of India’s Environment

India has galore natural resources in terms of rich quality of soil, many rivers and tributaries, lush inexperienced forests, lots of mineral deposits below the land surface, Brobdingnagian stretch of the Ocean, ranges of mountains, etc. The black soil of the Deccan upland is especially appropriate for cultivation of cotton, resulting in concentration of textile industries during this region.

The Indo-Gangetic plains, unfolds from the Arabian Sea to the Bay of Bengal; are one among the foremost fertile, intensively cultivated and densely inhabited regions within the world.

Class 12 Indian Economic Development Chapter 9 Important Question Answers

Define Environment and its function.

Environment is defined as the total planetary inheritance and the totality of all resources. It includes all the biotic and abiotic factors that influence each other. While all living elements—the birds, animals and plants, forests, fisheries etc.—are biotic elements, biotic elements include air, water, land etc. Rocks and sunlight are examples of abiotic elements of the environment. The environment performs four vital functions (i) it supplies resources: resources here include both renewable and non-renewable resources. Renewable resources are those which can be used without the possibility of the resource becoming depleted or exhausted. That is, a continuous supply of the resource remains available. Examples of renewable resources are the trees in the forests and the fishes in the ocean. Non-renewable resources, on the other hand, are those which get exhausted with extraction and use, for example, fossil fuel (ii) it assimilates waste (iii) it sustains life by providing genetic and bio diversity and (iv) it also provides aesthetic services like scenery etc.

What is Global Warming?

Global warming is a gradual increase in the average temperature of the earth’s lower atmosphere as a result of the increase in greenhouse gases since the Industrial Revolution. Much of the recent observed and projected global warming is human-induced. It is caused by man-made increases in carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases through the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation. Adding carbon dioxide, methane and such other gases (that have the potential to absorb heat) to the atmosphere with no other changes will make our planet’s surface warmer.

What is Ozone Depletion?

Ozone depletion refers to the phenomenon of reductions in the amount of ozone in the stratosphere. The problem of ozone depletion is caused by high levels of chlorine and bromine compounds in the stratosphere. The origins of these compounds are chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), used as cooling substances in air- conditioners and refrigerators, or as aerosol propellants, and Bromo fluorocarbons (halons), used in fire extinguishers. As a result of depletion of the ozone layer, more ultraviolet (UV) radiation comes to Earth and causes damage to living organisms. UV radiation seems responsible for skin cancer in humans; it also lowers production of phytoplankton and thus affects other aquatic organisms. It can also influence the growth of terrestrial plants.

What is Appiko?

You may be aware of the Chipko Movement, which aimed at protecting forests in the Himalayas. In Karnataka, a similar movement took a different name, ‘Appiko’, which means to hug. On 8 September 1983, when the felling of trees was started in Salkani forest in Sirsi district, 160 men, women and children hugged the trees and forced the woodcutters to leave. They kept vigil in the forest over the next six weeks. Only after the forest officials assured the volunteers that the trees will be cut scientifically and in accordance with the working plan of the district, did they leave the trees.

What is Pollution control board and what does it do?

In order to address two major environmental concerns in India, viz. water and air pollution, the government set up the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) in 1974. This was followed by states establishing their own state level boards to address all the environmental concerns. They investigate, collect and disseminate information relating to water, air and land pollution, lay down standards for sewage/trade effluent and emissions. These boards provide technical assistance to governments in promoting cleanliness of streams and wells by prevention, control and abatement of water pollution, and improve the quality of air and to prevent, control or abate air pollution in the country. These boards also carry out and sponsor investigation and research relating to problems of water and air pollution and for their prevention, control or abatement.

Pressure on finite Natural resources

India’s forests, although erratically distributed, offer inexperienced protect for a majority of its population and natural protects for its wildlife. Massive deposits of iron-ore, coal and fossil fuel are found within the country. India accounts for nearly 8 percent of the world’s total iron-ore reserves. Bauxite, copper, chromate, diamonds, gold, lead, lignite, manganese, zinc, uranium, etc. are out there in numerous components of the country. However, the biological process activities in India have resulted in pressure on its finite natural resources, besides making impacts on human health and well-being.

Class 12 Indian Economics Chapter 9 Multiple Choice Questions


Bio-tec element of environment is

[A]. Air
[B]. Water
[C]. Land
[D]. Birds

South Africa is leading exporter of

[A]. Copper
[B]. Diamond
[C]. Gold
[D]. Silver

The first airport powered by solar system was

[A]. London
[B]. Bangalore
[C]. Cochin
[D]. Frankfurt

Which of the following is a conventional source of energy

[A]. Wind
[B]. Sunlight
[C]. LPG
[D]. Tide
Some problems of over- utilising resources

The threat to India’s surroundings poses a dichotomy—threat of poverty-induced environmental degradation and, at a similar time, threat of pollution from richness and a speedily growing industrial sector. Pollution, water contamination, erosion, deforestation and life extinction are a number of foremost pressing environmental considerations of India. The priority problems known are (i) land degradation (ii) diversity loss (iii) pollution with special respect to conveyance pollution in urban cities (iv) management of water and (v) solid waste management. Land in India suffers from varied degrees and kinds of degradation stemming in the main from unstable use and inappropriate management practices.

Pollution Control Boards

In order to handle 2 major environmental consideration in India, viz. water and pollution, the govt. came upon the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) in 1974. This was followed by states establishing their own state level boards to handle all the environmental considerations. They investigate, collect and distribute data concerning water, air and land pollution, lay down standards for sewage/trade effluent and emissions. These boards give technical help to governments in promoting cleanliness of streams and wells by hindrance, management and abatement of pollution, and improve the standard of air and to forestall, management or abate pollution within the country.

Important functions of monitoring authority

These boards conjointly do and sponsor investigation and analysis concerning issues of water and pollution and for his or her hindrance, management or abatement. They organise, through mass media, a comprehensive mass awareness programme for the identical. The PCBs prepare manuals, codes and pointers concerning to treatment and disposal of waste matter and trade effluents.

Operation for controlling the Pollution
PCB assess the air quality through regulation of industries. In fact, state boards, through their district level officers, sporadically examine each business underneath their jurisdiction to assess the adequacy of treatment measures provided to treat the effluent and gasifier emissions.

It conjointly provides background air quality information required for industrial siting and city designing. The pollution management boards collect, collate and distribute technical and applied math information concerning to water pollution. They monitor the standard of water in 125 rivers (including the tributaries), wells, lakes, creeks, ponds, tanks, drains and canals.