NCERT Solutions for class 8 Social Science
|Subject:||Social Science – History, Geography, Civics|
8th Social Science – History, Geography and Civics
Class 8 Social Science Solutions includes History – Our Past – III, Geography – Resources and Development and Civics – Social and Political Life – III (Unit -1, 2, 3, 4 and 5). Download these solutions in PDF form free without any login or password. NCERT Solutions 2021-22 and Offline apps all are updated for the new academic session 2021-2022.
8th Social Science – History-Our Pasts – III
8th Social Science – Geography-Resources and Development
8th Social Science – Civics-Social and Political Life – III
How many chapters are there in Class 8 History?
Till 2019, there were 12 chapters in Class 8 History subject. But from the session 2019-20 and 2021-22 onward, there are only 10 chapters in Class 8 Social Science – History section. Two chapters Colonialism and the City and The Changing World of Visual Arts have been deleted.
How many Chapters are there in Class 8 Social Science – Geography Section?
In Geography Class 8, there are 6 chapters in all. No chapter is deleted so far for the new academic session 2021-22.
How many units are there in Class 8 Political Science?
There are total 5 units containing 10 chapters. Each unit is consists of two chapters. The units of Class 8 Social Science – Social and Political Life are as follows:
Unit One: The Indian Constitution and Secularism
Unit Two: Parliament and the Making of Laws
Unit Three: The Judiciary
Unit Four: Social Justice and the Marginalised
Unit Five: Economic Presence of the Government.
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NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science – History, Geography and civics all in Hindi Medium will be uploaded very soon for the academic session 2021-22. All the solutions are done properly under the guidance of subject experts. Use offline mobile apps, which works without internet. For any error or improvement, please inform us.
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Important Questions on 8th Social Science
What is the problem with the periodisation of Indian history that James Mill offers?
Although Hinduism is the religion of most of the Indians but Muslims had been living in India from much earlier than beginning of the Islamic rule in India. Even during the peak of the Mughal Empire, there were many territories which were ruled by Hindu kings.
James Mill divided history on the basis of religion of the rulers of the times. However, a variety of faiths existed simultaneously in these periods.
Mill, through his periodization suggested that British rule could civilize India. He thought that British should conquer all the territories in India to ensure the enlightenment as if India was not capable of progress without British coordination.
What attracted European trading companies to India?
Indian cotton and silk was in great demand in Europe. Indian spices were also in great demand. Goods could be bought at cheaper rates from India and could be sold at higher rates in Europe. This prospect attracted the European trading companies to India.
Give two problems which arose with the new Munro system of fixing revenue.
The revenue officials wanted to increase the income from land. Hence, they fixed very high revenue demand.
Peasants were not able to pay the revenue. The ryots fled the countryside and villages became deserted in many regions.
What problems did shifting cultivators face under British rule?
The shifting cultivators were forced to take up settled cultivation. But type of land and shortage of water meant they could not produce enough. Many of them had to move on to other areas in search of work when access to the forest was restricted.
How did the last Mughal emperor live the last years of his life?
The last Mughal emperor spent the last years of his life in a jail in Rangoon, along with his wife.
Who are the Agaria?
Agaria are a community from Chhattisgarh. They were the expert iron smelters in the Chhotanagpur plateau.
Why did James Mill and Thomas Macaulay think that European education was essential in India?
They thought that education should be useful and practical. They felt that Indians should be made familiar with the advances being made by the West. They thought that the Indians were uncivilized and needed to be civilized. This could be done only through English education.
Why did Phule dedicate his book Gulamgiri to the American movement to free slaves?
The Civil Rights Movement in America helped in ending slavery and racial discrimination. Hence Phule dedicated his book Gulamgiris to the movement.
How was the politics of the Radicals within the Congress different from that of the Moderates?
They criticized the Moderates for their “policy of prayers”. They argued that people should not believe on the so called good intentions of the government and must fight for Swaraj. They wanted to explore radical methods to ensure freedom.
After Independence, why was there a reluctance to divide the country on linguistic lines?
The partition of the country along communal lines changed the mindset of the nationalist leaders. They wanted to prevent further divisions in the country on sectarian lines.
Which one of the following is a human made resource? (a) medicines to treat cancer (b) spring water (c) tropical forests
(a) medicine to treat cancer
State whether the given statement is true of false. If true, write the reasons. Ganga–Brahmaputra plain of India is an overpopulated region.
Reason: Plains and river valleys regions are always good for agriculture. So, these are densely populated areas of the world.
Petroleum is referred to as “black gold”. Give reason.
The crude form of petroleum is thick and black. It is sent to refineries which process the crude oil and produce a variety of products like diesel, petrol, kerosene, wax, plastics and lubricants. Petroleum and its derivatives are called Black Gold as they are very valuable.
What is plantation agriculture?
Plantations are a type of commercial farming where single crop of tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana or cotton are grown investing a large amount of labour and capital. Major plantations are found in the tropical regions of the world. Rubber in Malaysia, coffee in Brazil, tea in India and Sri Lanka are some examples.
Why cotton textile industry rapidly expanded in Mumbai?
Cotton textile rapidly expanded in Mumbai because it has most of the favourable conditions for cotton industry like warm and moist climate, facility of port for importing and exporting good and machineries and the availability of cheap and skilled labour.
Discuss the role of any two factors influencing population change.
The birth rate, death rate and migration are the main factors that influence the change of population. When the birth rate increases and death rate decreases the population increases. When the two rates are equal, population remains balanced. So, birth and death rates affect the balance of population.
Identify the minority with reason: In a city, 5 per cent of the population are Buddhists.
Minority – Buddhists
All persons have the right to choose religion and others have to respect for that.
Look up the annual calendar of holidays of your school. How many of them pertain to different religions? What does this indicate?
Many holidays on a school’s annual calendar pertain to different religions. This indicates that India is a secular country where religious freedom is granted to its citizens and all religions are equally respected.
Name the components of Parliament of India.
Parliament of India consists of the President, the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha.
State two reasons why historians refute the claim that the British introduced the rule of law in India.
Historians refute the claim that the British introduced the rule of law in India on account of two main reasons. Firstly, colonial law was not devoid of arbitrariness. The Sedition Act of 1870 bears testimony to this. This Act allowed the police to arrest any person protesting against the British government, without due trial.
Secondly, Indian nationalists played a pivotal role in the framing of the Indian Constitution that upholds equality of all to law.
Hence, historians vehemently refute the claim that the British introduced the rule of law to India, because Indians were constantly discriminated against in various spheres of the social, political and administrative life of the country.
Re-read excerpts from the judgment on the Olga Tellis vs Bombay Municipal Corporation case. Now write in your own words what the judges meant when they said that the Right to Livelihood was part of the Right to Life.
In Olga Tellis vs. Bombay Municipal Corporation case, the judges said that the Right to Livelihood was part of the Right to Life. They stated that life does not merely imply an animal existence; it cannot be lived without a means of living, that is, “the means of livelihood”. In the case of Olga Tellis vs Bombay Municipal Corporation, the people live in slum. They have small jobs in the city and for them there is nowhere else to live. The eviction of their slum will lead to deprivation of their livelihood and consequently to the deprivation of life.
Thus, it can be said that Right to Life means the need of basic requirements of livelihood i.e., food, shelter and cloth.
What are the Fundamental Rights of an arrested person?
Article 22 of the Constitution and criminal law guarantee to every arrested person the following Fundamental Rights:
• The Right to be informed at the time of arrest of the offence for which the person is being arrested.
• The Right to be presented before a magistrate within 24 hours of arrest.
• The Right not to be ill treated or tortured during arrest or in custody.
• Confessions made in police custody cannot be used as evidence against the accused.
• A boy under 15 years of age and women cannot be called to the police station only for questioning.
Re-read the section on Minorities and Marginalisation. What do you understand by the term minority?
The term minority is used for defining communities that are smaller in number in relation to the rest of the population. It includes issues of power, access to resources and also bears cultural and social dimensions.
Why do Adivasi activists, including C.K. Janu, believe that Adivasis can also use this 1989 Act to fight against dispossession? Is there anything specific in the provisions of the Act that allows her to believe this?
Adivasi activists including C.K. Janu believe that Adivasis can also use this 1989 Act to fight against dispossession because there is a specific provision in the Act for stating “actions that dispossess Dalits and Adivasis” of their modest resources or forcing them into performing slave labour, are criminal offences. Thus, the Act bears provisions to punish those who wrongfully occupy or cultivate any land allotted to or owned by a member of the Scheduled Castes or Scheduled Tribes.
Why are most of the private hospitals and private schools located in major cities and not in towns or rural areas?
People living in major cities can afford to send their children in private schools or get treatment in private hospitals. In cities the people lead a busy life where they prefer to get their work done fast by taking appointments in spite of standing in long queues in government schools or hospitals. Various facilities like transportation, electricity, water supply are easily available in major cities in comparison to towns or rural areas.
What do we mean when we speak of law enforcement? Who is responsible for enforcement? Why is enforcement so important?
Law enforcement implies the government’s responsibility as lawmaker and enforcer, to ensure obedience to its laws by everyone within the State that it governs. It is the responsibility of the government to ascertain that laws are not violated by anyone. Enforcement is important to maintain the democratic status of India; if foreign companies are allowed to maintain low working conditions, then this interferes with the Fundamental Right of the Right to Life, of a worker. Hence, enforcement is necessary to protect the people.