English Grammar All Topics

Introduction to English Grammar: Grammar is the study of words, how they are used in sentences, and how they change in different situations. The study of sentence structure, Rules and examples show how the language should be used.

This is a correct usage grammar, as in a textbook or manual/guide.

Importance of Grammar

Grammar is important because it provides information that helps the reader’s comprehension. It is the structure that conveys precise meaning from the writer to the audience. Eliminate grammatical errors from your writing, and reward your readers with clear communication.

Main Parts of Grammar

Understanding parts of speech is essential for determining the correct definition of a word when using the dictionary.

    • NOUN
    • PRONOUN
    • VERB
    • ADJECTIVE
    • ADVERB
    • PREPOSITION
    • CONJUNCTION
    • INTERJECTION

Basic Parts of Speech

Before we dive into English grammar basics, it’s best to have an idea of the components within each rule. The basic parts of speech below are the building blocks of every sentence we write. Let’s take a look at the most popular players in the game.

Nouns

A noun is the names of a person, animal, place, thing, quality, idea, activity, or feeling. A noun can be singular, plural, or possessive.
For example:

    • (i). Ravi is a good boy.
    • (ii). Ganga is the holy river of india.
    • (iii). Delhi is the capital of India.
    • Here Ravi, Ganga and Delhi are nouns.

Pronouns

A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun, like “I,” “you,” or “they, etc.”
For example:

    • (i). we should wake-up early in the morning.
    • (ii). They are watching cricket match.
    • (iii). I am going market to purchase some grocery.
    • In above sentences we, they and I are pronouns.

Verbs

A verb shows action and can be a main verb (such as “run” or “sit”) or a helping verb (such as “were” or “has”). Verbs also indicate tense and sometimes change their form to show past, present, or future tense. You’ll also find linking verbs, which link the subject to the rest of the sentence (such as “appear” and “seem”).
For example:
(i). Black horse running very fast.
(ii). You should learn your lesson carefully
(iii). India win cricket match from South Africa.
Here run, learn and win are verb.

Adjectives

An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun. Adjectives usually, although not always, come before the noun they’re modifying. It adds meaning by telling which one or what kind, or describing it in other ways. For example:
(i). Chandan wore a pair of faded jeans.
(ii). This black tea tastes disgusting.
(iii). He is a handsome person.
In above sentences fade, black and handsome are adjectives.

Sentences

A sentence is a group of words which makes a complete sense.
Examples:
(i). Their boys learning the are lesson. (wrong)
(ii). The boys are learning their lesson. (Right)

Kinds of Sentences
SentenceExample
Statements or Assertive SentencesI am writing a letter.
Commands or Imperative Sentences Please help me.
Questions or Interrogative Sentences Are you going to school?
Optative Sentences May you live long!
Exclamations or Exclamatory Sentences Hello! What are you doing there?

Subject and Predicate

A Simple sentence that we speak or write consists of two parts: The Subject and the Predicate.

    • 1. The person or thing we speak about is the Subject
    • 2. What we speak about the person or thing is the Predicate.
Subject Predicate
The king’s servant went in search of the slave.
Dogs bark.
The rich should help the poor.
An old farmer had four sons.
The little lamb followed Mary every where.
ORDER OF SUBJECT AND PREDICATE
    1. The Subject usually comes first. Sometimes, however, this order is reversed.
      Example: Sweet are the uses of adversity.
    2. In Interrogative Sentences, the Subject usually comes after a part of the Predicate.
      Example: Are you running a race?
    3. In Exclamatory Sentences, the Subject is placed after the Predicate.
      Example: How beautiful the rainbow is!
    4. In Imperative Sentences, the Subject is generally omitted.
      Example: Welcome you.
THE OBJECT

The Object is a Noun or a Word that does the work of a Noun. It may be:

    1. A Noun: She bought a book.
    2. A Pronoun: I love her.
    3. An Adjective: We honour the brave
    4. An Infinitive: Her greatest pleasure is to sing
    5. A Gerund: She hates drinking
    6. A Phrase: We went out in the morning

The Noun: Kinds of Noun

Noun: A Noun is the name of a person, place or a thing. Kinds of Noun:

    • 1. Proper Noun
    • 2. Common Noun
    • 3. Collective Noun
    • 4. Material Noun
    • 5. Abstract Noun
Noun: The Number

There are two numbers in English:

    • 1. Singular Number
      A Noun or Pronoun that denotes one person or thing is said to be in the Singular Number; as, Boy, Pen, Child, Tree, Book, etc.
    • 2. Plural Number
      A Noun or Pronoun that denotes more than one persons or things is said to be in the Plural Number; as, Boys, Pens, Children, Trees, Books etc.
GENDERS OF NOUN

Genders tell us whether a noun belongs to the male sex, female sex or to neither of the two. There are four genders in the English language:

    • 1. Masculine Gender
    • 2. Feminine Gender
    • 3. Common Gender
    • 4. Neuter Gender

The Pronoun

“A Pronoun is a word used in place of a noun.” It is of the same number, gender and person as the noun for which it is used. The noun that is substituted by the pronoun is called the antecedent of the pronoun. Kinds of Pronouns:

    • 1. Personal Pronoun
    • 2. Interrogative Pronoun
    • 3. Relative Pronoun
    • 4. Demonstrative Pronoun
    • 5. Indefinite Pronoun
    • 6. Distributive Pronoun
    • 7. Reflexive or Emphatic Pronoun
    • 8. Reciprocal Pronoun

The Verb

The Verb is a word that expresses an action, a feeling, possession, state of being or existence. For example:
(i). The dog barks. (action)
(ii). Mayank flies a kite. (action)
There are three classes of verbs in English:
(a) Ordinary Verbs
(b) Auxiliaries {(i) Primary or Chief Auxiliary (ii) Modal Auxiliary}
(c) Verbs of incomplete Predication
Ordinary Verbs are also of two Kinds:
(a) Finite Verbs and (1. Transitive Verbs 2. Intransitive Verbs 3. Auxiliary Verbs)
(b) Non-Finite Verbs

CONJUGATION OF VERB

To conjugate a verb means to show its main parts i.e. the four forms of the verb – present, past, past participle and present participle.

The Adjective

An Adjective is a word to qualify a Noun or a Pronoun.
Ex.: good boy, beautiful girl

KINDS OF ADJECTIVES
    • 1. Proper Adjective
    • 2. Descriptive Adjective
    • 3. Quantitative Adjective
    • 4. Numeral Adjective
    • 5. Demonstrative Adjective
    • 6. Distributive Adjective
    • 7. Interrogative Adjective
    • 8. Exclamatory Adjective
    • 9. Possessive Adjective
    • 10. Emphasizing Adjective
COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

Adjectives have three degrees of comparison:

    1. Positive
    2. Comparative
    3. Superlative

The Adverb

An Adverb is a word that modifies a Verb, an Adjective, a Preposition, a Conjunction or another Adverb. Examples:

    • (a) A Verb: Ram runs fast.
    • (b) An Adjective: This is a very sweet mango.
    • (c) An Adverb: Laxmi reads quite clearly.
    • (d) A Conjunction: He solved the problem simply because it was easy.
    • (e) A Preposition: I struck her exactly on the head.
Kinds of Adverbs
    • (a) Simple Adverbs
    • (b) Interrogative Adverbs
    • (c) Relative Adverbs

The Tense

Tense is the form of a verb which shows the time of action or event and the degree of completeness and also the state of action.

Kinds of Tense

The word Tense means time. There are three tenses:
(i). Present
(ii). Past
(iii). Future
Each of the three main tenses has four forms:

    • (a) Simple (Indefinite): It simply states an action.
    • (b) Continuous (Progressive): It indicates an action going on at the time of speaking.
    • (c) Perfect: It indicates that the action is complete just now.
    • (d) Perfect Continuous: It shows that the action has been continuous.

The Preposition

Prepositions are parts of Speech. They show a relationship between a noun and a pronoun and another part of the sentence The noun/pronoun is referred to as the object of proposition.
Prepositions are used to indicate position, movement and time preposition are also used as adverbs, adjectives and conjunctions.
Ex.: At, In, On. After, Behind, By, With, Since, For, From, On, Upon, Over, Above, Between, Among, Beside, Besides, About, etc.

Conjunctions

A conjunction is a word which connects words, phrases, clauses, and sentences and at the same time brings about relationship between the elements thus joined.
Examples:
(i). Amit and Rohit are good friends. (and)
(ii). He said to me that he was my friend. (that)

Kinds of Conjunctions

1. Co-ordinate Conjunctions
{(a) Cumulative or Copulative Conjunctions (b) Adversative Conjunctions (c) Alternative or Distinctive Conjunctions (d) Illative or Illustrative Conjunctions}
2. Sub-ordinate Conjunctions (1. Correlative Conjunctions 2. Compound Conjunctions)

Interjections

An Interjection is a word which is used to express a sudden feeling of joy or sorrow or emotion of the mind. It is not a part of speech because it does not enter into the structure of a sentence. It stands independently.
Example:

    1. Joy: Hurrah! Ha! Ha! Ah! Aha! Ha! etc.
    2. Sorrow: Alas! Ah! Ah me! Ha! Sorry! etc.
    3. Surprise: What! Oh! Good Heavens! Good God! etc.
    4. Contempt: Pooh! Pshaw! what! How! etc.
    5. Attention: Lo! Hush! Behold! Listen! Look! Hark! etc.
    6. Calling/Address: Ho! Holla! Hallo! Hello! etc.
    7. Approval: O.K.! Well done! Bravo! Splendid! Back up! etc.
    8. Shame: For shame! Fie! Fie! Fie! etc.
The Article

Articles are Demonstrative Adjectives linked to Nouns. They have a grammatical function of identifying the noun as noun rather than describing it. A, an and the are articles.
A and An are called Indefinite Articles and the is called the Definite Article.

Punctuation and Capital Letters

Punctuation is the correct use of various stops or marks in writing so as to make the meaning of a sentence or a passage clear.

    • 1. THE COMMA (,)
    • 2. THE SEMI COLON (;)
    • 3. THE COLON (:)
    • 4. FULL STOP (.)
    • 5. THE MARK/ SIGN/ NOTE OF INTERROGATION (?)
    • 6. THE MARK/ SIGN/ NOTE OF EXCLAMATION (!)
    • 7. QUOTATION MARK/INVERTED COMMAS (“”)
    • 8. THE HYPHEN (-)
    • 9. THE DASH (-)
    • 10. THE APOSTROPHE (‘)
    • 11. THE BRACKETS ()
    • 12. CAPITAL LETTERS
What Does Good Grammar Mean?

Good grammar means writing or speaking in such a way that your choice of words is understandable and follows the basic rules of sentence construction, punctuation and spelling.

How can I learn English grammar easily?

There are 8 steps to learn grammar easily on your own.
1. Learn as many words as you can. To learn grammar easily, the basic element of any language is words.
2. Talk to people.
3. Watch and learn.
4. Ask for corrections.
5. Know the parts of speech.
6. Look for patterns.
7. Practice verb forms.
8. Use an app.

What Are Basic English Grammar Rules?

There are hundreds of grammar rules but the basics refer to sentence structure and parts of speech, including nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions and conjunctions.