NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science

Get here the updated NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science all chapters in PDF format to free download. If you do not want to download Class 10 Science Solutions, view online free of cost. Students of Uttar Pradesh High School are also using Textbooks of NCERT. So, the students of UP Board also get the UP Board Solutions for Class 10 Science in Hindi Medium or English Medium. All the NCERT Solutions and Offline Apps for 2020-2021 are fully updated for the current academic session. Apart from CBSE and UP Board Students, NCERT Solution is free for Bihar board, Gujrat Board, Uttarakhand Board, MP Board (Madhya Pradesh Board, Jammu and Kashmir Board of School Education (jkbose), whosoever are following NCERT Textbooks 2020–21.

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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science

Class: 10Science (English and Hindi Medium)
Contents:Class 10 Science Solutions

CBSE NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science

Get here CBSE Board NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science in English Medium and UP board Class 10 Science Solutions in Hindi Medium. Class 10 Science all chapter’s question answers of intext questions and exercise questions are given here. No charge, no login or password, no promotion calls from Tiwari Academy, only peaceful study of science of standard 10. All the solutions are updated for new academic session 2020-2021. Students of UP Board, MP Board, Gujrat Board and all other boards can use these solutions because they are following latest NCERT Textbooks for 2020-21.

Class 10 Science Important Questions for 2020-21

Class 10 Science Notes for Session 2020-21

  • 10th Chemistry: Chemical Reactions and EquationsClass 10 Science Chapter 1 NotesRead more
  • 10th Chemistry: Acids, Bases and SaltsClass 10 Science Chapter 2 NotesRead more

Class 10 Science Previous Years Board Questions

Class 10 Science MCQ Tests for Session 2020-21

  • Chapter 1: Chemical Reactions and EquationsClass 10 Science Chapter 1 MCQRead more
  • Chapter 2: Acids, Bases and SaltsClass 10 Science Chapter 2 MCQRead more
  • Chapter 3: Metals and Non-MetalsClass 10 Science Chapter 3 MCQRead more
  • Chapter 4: Carbon and its CompoundsClass 10 Science Chapter 4 MCQRead more
  • Chapter 6: Life ProcessesClass 10 Science Chapter 6 MCQ TestRead more
  • Class 10 Science Chapter 5 MCQ

NCERT Solutions Class 10 Science & Main Points of All Chapters

Chapter 1: Chemical Reactions and Equations

Class 10 Science Chapter 1 deals with the various types of Chemical Reactions and Equations with related examples. It also teaches how to write a skeleton reaction and way to balance the chemical reactions. There are mainly five kinds of reactions which are combination reaction, Decomposition reactions, Displacement and Double Displacement reactions and Oxidation-Reduction or Redox reactions. The introduction with the example of exothermic and endothermic reactions are also important for board exams. We can learn here about how precipitation reactions produce insoluble salts.

Chapter 2: Acids, Bases and Salts

Class 10 Science Chapter 2 includes the concepts of Acid-base indicators or mixtures of these dyes which are used to indicate the presence of acids and bases. The concentration of H+ ions and OH- ions are the base for the concepts of Base or Acids. Further, we have to study the reactions of Acids or Bases with Metal, Water and Metal Carbonates also. The properties of acidic and basic solutions in water are given on a separate segment. The strength of an acid or an alkali can be tested by using a scale called the pH scale (0-14) which gives the measure of hydrogen ion concentration in a solution. The crystallisation of compounds with water is the fixed number of water molecules present in one formula unit of salt. There are various uses of salts in everyday life and in industries.

Chapter 3: Metals and Non-Metals

In Chapter 3 of Class 10 Science, we will study that elements can be classified as metals and non-metals. We will go through the physical and chemical properties of metals and non-metals. Physical properties of metals are lustrous, malleable, ductile and are good conductors of heat and electricity. There are some exceptions like metals are solid at room temperature but mercury which is a liquid. Few metals show the properties of both basic as well as acidic oxides. These oxides are known as amphoteric oxides. The main topics of Class 10 Science Chapter 3 are Activity series, Ore, Mineral, Gangue, Extraction of Metals from their ores, Metallurgy, Alloy, Corrosion and Rancidity.

Chapter 4: Carbon and its Compounds

Chapter 4 of Class 10 Science, covers deals with versatile properties of carbon, Catenation and Tetravalency. Formation of Single, Double and Triple Covalent Bonds by the sharing of the electron. Carbon compounds with straight chains branched chains or rings. Knowledge about homologous series of compounds and functional group attached to carbon chains such as alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids. Preparation of Ethanol with proper Chemical Reactions and properties of Ethanol and ethanoic acid, The action of soaps and detergents with the concepts of hydrophilic or hydrophobic groups.

Chapter 5: Periodic Classification of Elements

Class 10 Science Chapter 5 is based on how elements are classified on the basis of similarities in their properties. Elementary knowledge about Döbereiner’s triads and Newland’s Law of Octaves. Merits and drawback of Mendeléev periodic table and the contribution of this table in the discovery of new elements. Modern periodic table proposed by Henry Moseley. Physical and chemical properties trends in the modern periodic table. We have to learn about Periodicity which is the properties including atomic size, valency as well as combining capacity and metallic and non-metallic character.

Chapter 6: Life Processes

Life processes include the main four processes like Nutrition, Digestion, Respiration and Excretion. We know that maintenance of life requires these processes to transport of materials within the body and excretion of waste products. Autotrophic nutrition and Heterotrophic nutrition both describe separately. In human beings, the food eaten is broken down by various steps along the alimentary canal and the digested food is absorbed in the small intestine to be sent to all cells in the body. Respiration may be aerobic or anaerobic. Aerobic respiration releases more energy as compared to anaerobic. In human beings, excretory products in the form of soluble nitrogen compounds whereas in plants gum and resin.

Chapter 7: Control and Coordination

Control and coordination, in Class 10 Science, have the functions of the nervous system and hormones
in our bodies. The responses of the nervous system as a reflex action, voluntary action or involuntary action. Functions of sensory and motor nerves. The nervous system uses electrical impulses to transmit messages using neurons. Chemical coordination in plants using various hormones. Effect of hormones and related glands in human. The action of the hormones is totally based on a feedback mechanism.

Chapter 8: How do Organisms Reproduce?

Class 10 Science Chapter 8 involves the creation of a DNA copy and additional cellular apparatus by the cell involved in the process and different modes of reproduction depending on their body design. For example, in fission, many bacteria and protozoa simply divide into two or more daughter cells, whereas organisms such as hydra can regenerate if they are broken into pieces. Roots, stems and leaves of some plants grow to be new plants through vegetative propagation. Sexual Reproduction is totally different from Asexual Reproduction. Sexual reproduction involves two individuals for the creation of a brand new individual. Reproduction in flowering plants involves the transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma which is referred to as pollination. Sexual reproduction in human beings involves the introduction of sperm to fertilisation occurs in the fallopian tube.

Chapter 9: Heredity and Evolution

Variations arising during the process of reproduction can be discussed in Chapter 9 Heredity and Evolutions of Class 10 Science. As we know that sexually reproducing individuals have two copies of genes for the same trait. Concepts of dominant trait and recessive trait traits describe the transfer of traits properly in this chapter. Difference between inherited and acquired traits are the important topics which are frequently asked in Boards. The determination of sex of the offspring depends on different factors in all species. All the variations during the reproductions in the species somehow confer survival advantages. Sometimes it also shows the genetic drift. Due to geographic isolation, the speciation of species takes place.

Chapter 10: Light – Reflection and Refraction

In Class 10 Science Chapter 10 Light and related phenomena, Reflection or Refraction are given in brief. The concepts given in Light chapter are also important for further classes. The straight-line path of light and mirror – lens application is given for study. We have to study the reflecting surfaces, of all types, obey the laws of reflection and the refracting surfaces obey the laws of refraction. Main topics are New Cartesian Sign Conventions, mirrors and lenses formula, focal length, the radius of curvature and magnification. The power of a lens is measured as the reciprocal of its focal length. Its SI unit is dioptre.

Chapter 11: Human Eye and Colourful World

After going through Chapter 11 of Class 10 Science, we will be able to know about the accommodation of the eye, the near point of the eye or the least distance of distinct vision. The common defects of vision, which are included in Class 10 Science Chapter 11, are myopia, hypermetropia and presbyopia. Myopia. The splitting of white light into seven colours (VIBGYOR) is called dispersion. We will study here how to form a Rainbow or why we see sky reddish in the morning or evening. The blue colour of the sky and the reddening of the Sun at sunrise and sunset is due to scattering of light.

Chapter 12: Electricity

We will deal here with the basic concepts of Electricity and its heating effects. We know that a stream of electrons moving through a conductor constitutes an electric current. But, conventionally, the direction of current is taken opposite to the direction of flow of electrons. In Chapter 12 of Class 10 Science, we will learn about the SI unit of electric current, use of a cell or a battery and use of voltmeter and ammeter. The main topic is Ohm’s law which states that the potential difference across the ends of a resistor is directly proportional to the current through it, provided its temperature remains the same. Concepts of resistance and resistivity are also new for class 10 students, but these are important terms for further classes. Here we learn how to find total resistance when they are attached in parallel or series. The unit of power, consumption of electricity with heating effect and commercial unit of electricity are also important for exams.

Chapter 13: Magnetic Effects of Electric Current

Here we will learn about a compass needle which is a small magnet and its one end, which points towards north, is called a north pole, and the other end, which points towards the south, is called a south pole. Main topics are Magnetic field, the direction of the magnetic field and a metallic wire carrying an electric current has associated with it a magnetic field. Fleming’s Right-hand rule and Left-hand rule for magnetism. We know that an electromagnet consists of a core of soft iron wrapped around with a coil of insulated copper wire. Here we have to study about Magnetic field of a solenoid carrying a current with a comparison of a bar magnet. An electric motor and the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction are also important for exams. Questions are frequently asked on the basis of a generator, live wire, fuse, short-circuiting or overloading.

Chapter 14: Sources of Energy

As we know that our energy requirements increase with our standard of living nowadays. For our energy requirements, we have to improve the efficiency of energy usage and also try and exploit new sources of energy. In Chapter 14 of Class 10 Science, we will learn how we are looking for new sources of energy because the conventional sources of energy like fossil fuels are in danger of getting exhausted soon. Here, we will also learn about some solar devices and their advantages and disadvantages. All the energy sources depend on various factors like the ease and cost of extracting energy from the source. Solar cells, solar cooker, windmills, etc. ultimately derive their energy from the Sun.

Chapter 15: Our Environment

Main topics in Chapter 15 of Class 10 Science are Ecosystem, Food-Chain or Food-Web, Biodegradable or Non-biodegradable, Disposal of waste and CFSs. The various components of an ecosystem are interdependent. We know that the producers make the energy from sunlight available to the rest of the ecosystem. Food web or food chain is based on producers. 10 per cent law describes how the loss of energy take place as we go from one trophic level to the next. The ozone layer is now affected due to excess use of CFCs. The generated waste may be biodegradable or non-biodegradable cause the problem of disposal.

Chapter 16: Management of Natural Resources

In Chapter 16 of Class 10 Science, we will learn how to use our natural resources like forests, wildlife, water, coal and petroleum in a sustainable manner. We should follow RRRRR, means Refuse, Reduce, Reuse, Repurpose and Recycle in our lives. We know that fossil fuels like coal and petroleum will ultimately be exhausted after a few years. In this chapter, we will learn how to utilise the renewable resources which may last for many years.

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Important Questions on 10th Science

Why is respiration considered an exothermic reaction? Explain.
Energy in our body is obtained from the food we eat. During digestion, large molecules of food are broken down into simpler substances such as glucose. Glucose combines with oxygen in the cells and provides energy. The special name of this combustion reaction is respiration. Since energy is released in the whole process, it is an exothermic process.
What are olfactory indicators? Give an example.
Olfactory indicators are substances which have different odour in acid and base solutions. For example, vanilla essence has characteristics pleasant smell in acid solution and no smell in alkali solution.
Platinum, gold and silver are used to make jewellery. Why?
Platinum, gold, and silver are used to make jewellery because they are very lustrous. Also, they are very less reactive and do not corrode easily.
Why are carbon and its compounds used as fuels for most applications?
Most of the carbon compounds give a lot of heat and light when burnt in air. Saturated hydrocarbons burn with a clean flame and no smoke is produced. The carbon compounds, used as a fuel, have high calorific values. Therefore, carbon and its compounds are used as fuels for most applications.
How does the electronic configuration of an atom relate to its position in the Modern Periodic Table?
In the modern periodic table, atoms with similar electronic configurations are placed in the same column. In a group, the number of valence electrons remains the same. Elements across a period show an increase in the number of valence electrons.
What is the role of saliva in the digestion of food?
Saliva is secreted by the salivary glands, located under the tongue. It makes the food soft for easy swallowing. It contains a digestive enzyme called salivary amylase, which breaks down starch into sugar.
What are the methods used by plants to get rid of excretory products?
Plants use completely different strategies for excretion than those of animals. They can get rid of excess water by transpiration. For other wastes, plants use the fact that many of their tissues consist of dead cells, and that they can even lose some parts such as leaves. Many plant waste products are stored in cellular vacuoles. Waste products may be stored in leaves that fall off. Other waste products are stored as resins and gums, especially in old xylem. Plants also excrete some waste substances into the soil around them.
How does phototropism occur in plants?
The movement of plant in response to light is called phototropism. Stem shows positive phototropism as follows: When growing plants detect light, a hormone called auxin, synthesised at the shoot tip, helps the cells to grow longer. When light is coming from one side of the plant, auxin diffuses towards the shady side of the shoot. This concentration of auxin stimulates the cells to grow longer on the side of the shoot which is away from light. Thus, the plant appears to bend towards light.
How does chemical coordination take place in animals?
Chemical coordination takes place in animals with the help of hormones. Hormone is the chemical messenger that regulates the physiological processes in living organisms. It is secreted by glands. The regulation of physiological processes and control and coordination by hormones comes under the endocrine system. The nervous system along with the endocrine system in our body controls and coordinates the physiological processes.
How does the process of budding is differ from the process of spore formation?
Budding: A bud, as in Hydra, develops as an outgrowth due to replicated cell division at a specific site. These buds when mature detach from the parent body and become new individual.
Spore Formation: In spore formation, as in Rhizopus, a specific part called Sporangia that produce spores. The spores are covered by thick walls that protect them until a spore gets favourable conditions to grow into a new (Rhizopus) plant.
Explain how sexual reproduction gives rise to more viable variations than asexual reproduction. How does this affect the evolution of those organisms that reproduce sexually?
In sexual reproduction, two individuals having different variations combine their DNA to give rise to a new individual. Therefore, sexual reproduction allows more variations, whereas in asexual reproduction, chance variations can only occur when the copying of DNA is not accurate. Additionally, asexual reproduction allows very less variations because if there are more variations, then the resultant DNA will not be able to survive inside the inherited cellular apparatus.
However, in sexual reproduction, more variations are allowed and the resultant DNA is also able to survive, thus making the variations viable.
Variation and Evolution: Variants help the species to survive in all the conditions. Environmental conditions such as heat, light, pests, and food availability can change suddenly at only one place. At that time, only those variants resistant to these conditions would be able to survive. This will slowly lead to the evolution of a better adapted species. Thus, variation helps in the evolution of sexually reproducing organisms.
Will geographical isolation be a major factor in the speciation of an organism that reproduces asexually? Why or why not?
Geographical isolation prevents gene flow between populations of a species whereas asexual reproduction generally involves only one individual. In an asexually reproducing organism, variations can occur only when the copying of DNA is not accurate. Therefore, geographical isolation cannot prevent the formation of new species in an asexually reproducing organism.
Name the mirror that can give an erect and enlarged image of an object.
When an object is placed between the pole and the principal focus of a concave mirror, the image formed is virtual, erect, and enlarged.
A battery of 9 V is connected in series with resistors of 0.2 Ω, 0.3 Ω, 0.4 Ω, 0.5 Ω and 12 Ω, respectively. How much current would flow through the 12 Ω resistor?
Total resistance of resistors when connected in series is given by
R = R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 + R5 = ⟹ R= 0.2 Ω + 0.3 Ω + 0.4 Ω + 0.5 Ω + 12 Ω =13.4 Ω
According to Ohm’s law, V = IR

I = V/R = 9/13.4 = 0.67 A

There is no current division occurring in a series circuit. So, the current through the 12 Ω resistor will be same as 0.67 A.

Why are coils of electric toasters and electric irons made of an alloy rather than a pure metal?
The resistivity of an alloy is higher than the pure metal and it does not corrode easily. Moreover, even at high temperatures, the alloys do not melt readily. Hence, the coils of heating appliances such as electric toasters and electric irons are made of an alloy rather than a pure metal.
When is the force experienced by a current–carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field largest?
The force experienced by a current-carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field is largest when the current-carrying conductor is placed in a direction perpendicular to that of magnetic field.
What is the role of the split ring in an electric motor?
The split ring in the electric motor acts as a commutator. The commutator reverses the direction of current flowing through the coil after each half rotation of the coil. Due to this reversal of the current, the coil continues to rotate in the same direction.
What is a good source of energy?
A good source of energy should have the following qualities:
It should be easily available.
It should do a large amount of work (or produce large amount of heat) per unit volume/mass.
It should be easy to store and transport.
It should be economical.
It should cause less environmental pollution.
What is biological magnification? Will the levels of this magnification be different at different levels of the ecosystem?
Progressive increase in the concentration of non-biodegradable substances in a food chain is called biological magnification. The level of these harmful substances will go on increasing from one trophic level to the next. When certain harmful substances enter the food chain at the level of primary producers,-they get concentrated many times at each subsequent trophic level.
What can you as an individual do to reduce your consumption of the various natural resources?
Save electricity.
Do not waste food.
Save water.
Use cooking gas instead of wood for cooking.
Observe the principle of three R’s (Reduce, Recycle and Reuse).