NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 4

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and its compounds intext questions given on Page 61 or Page 68 or Page 71 or Page 74 or Page 76 or Exercises in English updated for academic session 2020-21.

Download answers of पेज 68 or पेज 76 or पेज 79 or पेज 83 or पेज 85 or अभ्यास के प्रश्न उत्तर in हिंदी to view online or download in PDF form free for new academic session 2020-2021. Download CBSE Solutions Offline Apps 2020-21 based on latest CBSE Syllabus 2020-21 for offline use.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 4

Class:10
Subject:Science – विज्ञान
Chapter 4:Carbon and its compounds

10th Science Chapter 4 Answers in English & Hindi Medium

NCERT solutions 2020-21 for class 10 Science all chapters based on latest NCERT Books 2020-21 are in the same format. You can use these solutions for online study or download to use it offline. 10 Science Chapter 4 all intext questions and chapter end exercises question answers are given below.

Why are covalent compounds poor conductor of electricity?

Covalent compounds are formed due to sharing of electrons between atoms and no charged particle (ions) are formed, hence such compounds are generally bad conductors of electricity.

Differentiate between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons.

Saturated hydrocarbons:
A hydrocarbon in which each carbon atom is attached to four other atoms, is known a saturated hydrocarbon. The bonds so formed are single covalent bonds. These hydrocarbons are also called alkanes.
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons:
Hydrocarbons contains either a carbon-carbon double bond (C = C) or a carbon-carbon triple bond in their molecules are called unsaturated hydrocarbons.

What is catenation? What is its property?

The unique property of carbon to form bonds with other carbon atoms giving rise to large molecules is called catenation.
Due to catenation compounds of carbons have long chains of carbon, branches chains of carbon and even carbon atoms arranged in rings.

What is meant by saponification?

The reaction of an ester to react with an acid or base to give back the alcohol and carboxylic acid is called saponification. This is so-called because this reaction is used in the preparation of soap.

How does soap help to wash the clothes?

Dirt is generally absorbed in the clothes as an oily material. It cannot be removed with water because it does not mix well with water. But when a cloth with dirt is soaked in soap solution, the dirt and grease attach themselves to the hydrocarbon component of the soap molecule. The ― COONa part of the soap which is attached to the water molecules pulls the hydrocarbon part along with dirt away from the surface of the cloth, thus washing it clean.

Questions for Practice

Question 1:
What do you understand by a homologous series? Explain giving one example of homologous series.
OR
Define homologous series of carbon compound. List any two characteristics of a homologous series.
Answer 1:
A homologous series is a group or family of compounds which contains the same functional group but have different chain lengths. Thus, these have the same chemical properties but different physical properties that vary in a regular manner.
Characteristics of a homologous series are:
(i) It has a general formula in terms of number of carbon atoms.
(ii) It has the same functional group, if any.
(iii) The members of a homologous series, i.e., homologous, have similar chemical properties.
(iv) Various homologous can be prepared by the general method of preparation for the series.
(v) Two successive (adjacent) homologous differ by 1 carbon atom and 2 hydrogen atoms in their molecular formulae.
(vi) The member of a homologous series show a gradual change in their physical properties with increase in molecular mass.

Question 2:
(a) Distinguish between ethanol and ethanoic acid on the basis of
(i) litmus test, (ii) reaction with sodium hydrogen carbonate.
(b) Name the oxidising agents used in the conversion of ethanol to ethanoic acid.
Answer 2:
(a) Ethanol shows no change/reaction with either litmus paper or sodium hydrogen carbon.
Ethanoic acid solution in water turns blue litmus red. It reacts with sodium carbonate with effervescence and gives out carbon dioxide gas which turns lime water milky.
(b) Alkaline potassium permanganate turns ethanol to acid.

Questions from Board Papers

Question 1:
Soap does not form lather with hard water. Why?
Or
Why do soaps not work in hard water?
Or
Why do soaps from scum instead of lather in hard water?
Answer 1:
When soap is added to a sample of hard water, calcium and/or magnesium ions present in hard react with soap forming insoluble calcium/magnesium soap which is a sticky and greasy mass and thus no lather is formed.

Question 2:
What will happen if ethanol reacts will ethanoic acid in the presence of an acid? Name the reaction. Write the chemical equation for the reaction.
Answer 2:
Ethyl alcohol reacts with acetic acid (ethanoic acid) in the presence of a few drops of conc. sulphuring acid to form a sweet smelling substance called ester (ethyl acetate). Such a reaction is called esterification.

esterification

Important Questions on 10th Science Chapter 4

What is a homologous series?
A homologous series is a series of carbon compounds that have different numbers of
carbon atoms but contain the same functional group.

For example, methane, ethane, propane, butane, etc. are all part of the alkane
homologous series. The general formula of this series is CnH2n+2.

How can ethanol and ethanoic acid be differentiated on the basis of their physical and chemical properties?
Ethanol is a liquid at room temperature with a pleasant odour while ethanoic acid has vinegar-like smell. The melting point of ethanoic acid is 17°C. This is below room temperature and hence, it freezes during winters.

Ethanoic acid reacts with metal carbonates and metal hydrogencarbonates to form salt, water, and carbon dioxide gas while ethanol does not react with them.

Why are carbon and its compounds used as fuels for most applications?
Most of the carbon compounds give a lot of heat and light when burnt in air. Saturated hydrocarbons burn with a clean flame and no smoke is produced. The carbon compounds, used as a fuel, have high calorific values. Therefore, carbon and its compounds are used as fuels for most applications.
Explain the formation of scum when hard water is treated with soap.
Soap does not work properly when the water is hard. A soap is a sodium or potassium salt of long chain fatty acids. Hard water contains salts of calcium and magnesium. When soap is added to hard water, calcium and magnesium ions present in water displace sodium or potassium ions from the soap molecules forming an insoluble substance called scum. A lot of soap is wasted in the process.
What change will you observe if you test soap with litmus paper (red and blue)?
Since soap is basic in nature, it will turn red litmus blue. However, the colour of blue litmus will remain blue.
What is hydrogenation? What is its industrial application?
Hydrogenation is the process of addition of hydrogen. Unsaturated hydrocarbons are added with hydrogen in the presence of palladium and nickel catalysts to give saturated hydrocarbons.

This reaction is applied in the hydrogenation of vegetables oils, which contain long chains of unsaturated carbons.

What are the two properties of carbon which lead to the huge number of carbon compounds we see around us?
The two features of carbon that give rise to a large number of compounds are as follows:
(i) Catenation: It is the ability to form bonds with other atoms of carbon.
(ii) Tetravalency: With the valency of four, carbon is capable of bonding with four other atoms.
What are oxidising agents?
Some substances such as alkaline potassium permanganate and acidified potassium dichromate are capable of adding oxygen to others. These are known as oxidising agents.

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