NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 2
|Subject:||Social Science – Civics|
|Chapter 2:||Understanding Secularism|
Class 8 Civics Chapter 2 Question Answers
CBSE NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 2 Understanding Secularism for session 2021-22. Download all the digital contents for offline use. Ask your doubts through Discussion Forum and share your views with the others.
Why is it Important to Separate Religion from the State?
This is important for a country to function democratically. Almost all countries of the world will have more than one religious group living in them. If this majority religious group has access to State power, then it could quite easily use this power and financial resources to discriminate against and persecute persons of other religions. This tyranny of the majority could result in the discrimination, coercion and at times even the killing of religious minorities. Therefore, the tyranny of the majority and the violation of Fundamental Rights that can result is one reason why it is important to separate the State and religion in democratic societies.
Another reason that it is important to separate religion from the State in democratic societies is because we also need to protect the freedom of individuals to exit from their religion, embrace another religion or have the freedom to interpret religious teachings differently.
What is Secularism?
The Indian Constitution allows individuals the freedom to live by their religious beliefs and practices as they interpret these. In keeping with this idea of religious freedom for all, India also adopted a strategy of separating the power of religion and the power of the State. Secularism refers to this separation of religion from the State.
What is Indian Secularism?
The Indian Constitution mandates that the Indian State be secular. According to the Constitution, only a secular State can realise its objectives to ensure the following:
1. One religious community does not dominate another.
2. Some members do not dominate other members of the same religious community.
3. The State does not enforce any particular religion nor take away the religious freedom of individuals.
Important Notes on 8th Civics Chapter 2
In February 2004, France passed a law banning students from wearing any conspicuous religious or political signs or symbols such as the Islamic headscarf, the Jewish skullcap, or large Christian crosses. In the 1960s, France had faced a shortage of workers and therefore, had provided visas for these immigrants to come and work in the country. The daughters of these immigrants often wear headscarves while attending school.
Important Questions on 8th Civics Chapter 2
List the different types of religious practice that you find in your neighbourhood. This could be different forms of prayer, worship of different gods, sacred sites, different kinds of religious music and singing etc. Does this indicate freedom of religious practice?
The different types of religious practices found in my neighborhood strongly indicate freedom of religious practice. The various forms of prayer, worship of different gods, sacred sites and different kinds of religious music found in my locality are of Christians, Muslims, Hindus, Sikhs, Jews and the Baha’is. The Christians sing hymns, the Hindus Bhajans, while the Muslims offers Namaaz five times a day. The Baha’is believe in world unity and peace.
Will the government intervene if some religious group says that their religion allows them to practise infanticide? Give reasons for your answer.
The government in any democratic nation would intervene if some religious group says that their religion allows them to practice infanticide because this tradition goes against the Fundamental Right to Life. It involves the killing of an innocent and is, hence, unacceptable. The government, in this case, interferes by coercion. However, sometimes, the government may also intervene via support. For example, Sikhs in Delhi are excused from wearing helmets on two-wheelers because their religion demands them to wear a turban-a sacred tradition for them.
Look up the annual calendar of holidays of your school. How many of them pertain to different religions? What does this indicate?
Many holidays on a school’s annual calendar pertain to different religions. This indicates that India is a secular country where religious freedom is granted to its citizens and all religions are equally respected.
Find out some examples of different views within the same religion.
Many religions are further segregated into groups and communities that hold differing ideological opinions. One of these is the rift between the Shias and Sunnis – both followers of Islam. The division between Shias and Sunnis dates back to the death of the Prophet Muhammad and to the question of who was to take over the leadership after the Prophet. Sunni Muslims agree with the position taken by many of the Prophet’s companions, that the new leader should be elected from among those capable for the job. This is what was done, and the Prophet Muhammad’s close friend and advisor, Abu Bakr, became the first Caliph of the Islamic nation. The word “Sunni” in Arabic comes from a word meaning “one who follows the traditions of the Prophet. On the other hand, some Muslims share the belief that leadership should have stayed within the Prophet’s own family, among those specifically appointed by him, or among Imams appointed by God Himself. The Shia Muslims believe that following the Prophet Muhammad’s death, leadership should have passed directly to his cousin/son-in-law, Ali. Throughout history, Shia Muslims have not recognized the authority of elected Muslim leaders, choosing instead to follow a line of Imams which they believe have been appointed by the Prophet Muhammad or God Himself. The word “Shia” in Arabic means a group or supportive party of people. The commonly-known term is shortened from the historical “Shia-t-Ali,” or “the Party of Ali.” They are also known as followers of “Ahl-al-Bayt” or “People of the Household” (of the Prophet).
The Indian State both keeps away from religion as well as intervenes in religion. This idea can be quite confusing. Discuss this once again in class using examples from the chapter as well as those that you might have come up with.
The Indian State keeps away from religion as well as intervenes in religion. This idea is quite confusing. It allows Sikh citizens to wear turbans and thereby be exempt from the use of helmets but it also disallows government schools from celebrating any particular religious festival. Annual holidays are given with regard to all religions and not any specific ones.