Class 10 Economics Chapter 3 Important Questions of Money and Credit for the new academic session 2024-25 updated on the basis on new NCERT Books and following the latest CBSE Syllabus 2024-25 for all boards who are using NCERT Books. These important questions include questions from school tests, questions from board papers, pre-board papers and NCERT Back exercises questions with answers.

Class 10 Economics Chapter 3 Important Questions 2024-25

Contents:Important Questions

10th Economics Chapter 2 Important Questions for Exams

10th Economics Chapter 3 Important Questions of Money and Credit is given below. Important Questions are taken from board papers, CBSE Sample Papers, NCERT Textbook and good questions from private publishers. Download apps for offline or online use updated for new session 2024-25 based on latest NCERT Books and CBSE Curriculum.

10th Economics Chapter 3 Important Questions Set – 1

What do you understand by the Double Coincidence of want? Explain with example.

Take the case of a shoe manufacturer. He wants to sell shoes in the market and buy wheat. The shoe manufacturer will first exchange shoes that he has produced for money, and then exchange the money for wheat. Imagine how much more difficult it would be if the shoe manufacturer had to directly exchange shoes for wheat without the use of money. He would have to look for a wheat growing farmer who not only wants to sell wheat but also wants to buy the shoes in exchange That is, both parties have to agree to sell and buy each other’s commodities. This is known as double coincidence of wants.

“Money tackle the problem of double coincidence of want” How, give example in support your answer?

The money for things that they want. Take the case of a shoe manufacturer. He wants to sell shoes in the market and buy wheat. But farmer don’t need shoes, he need clothes. And pot maker wants shoes He don’t need clothes. Once he has exchanged his shoes for money, he can purchase wheat or any other commodity in the market. Since money acts as an intermediate in the exchange process, it is called a medium of exchange.

Give some example which was used as money in ancient time?

Before the introduction of coins, a variety of objects was used as money. For example, since the very early ages, Indians used grains and cattle as money. Thereafter came the use of metallic coins — gold, silver, copper coins — a phase which continued well into the last century.

Which forms of money used in the modern time period?

Modern forms of money include currency — paper notes and coins. Unlike the things that were used as money earlier, modern currency is not made of precious metal such as gold, silver and copper. And unlike grain and cattle, they are neither of everyday use. The modern currency is without any use of its own.

Money as Medium of Exchange

It is accepted as a medium of exchange because the currency is authorised by the government of the country. In India, the Reserve Bank of India issues currency notes on behalf of the central government. As per Indian law, no other individual or organisation is allowed to issue currency. Moreover, the law legalises the use of rupee as a medium of payment that cannot be refused in settling transactions in India. No individual in India can legally refuse a payment made in rupees. Hence, the rupee is widely accepted as a medium of exchange.

10th Economics Chapter 3 Important Questions Set – 2

What do people do with this extra cash?

They deposit it with the banks by opening a bank account in their name. Banks accept the deposits and also pay an amount as interest on the deposits. In this way people’s money is safe with the banks and it earns an amount as interest.

What do you mean by demand deposit?

People also have the provision to withdraw the money as and when they require. Since the deposits in the bank accounts can be withdrawn on demand, these deposits are called demand deposits.

What do you understand by the medium of payment through cheque?

For payment through cheque, the payer who has an account with the bank, makes out a cheque for a specific amount. A cheque is a paper instructing the bank to pay a specific amount from the person’s account to the person in whose name the cheque has been issued. The facility of cheques against demand deposits makes it possible to directly settle payments without the use of cash.

How do bank provide the loan facilities to the people?

Banks make use of the deposits to meet the loan requirements of the people. In this way, banks mediate between those who have surplus funds (the depositors) and those who are in need of these funds (the borrowers). Banks charge a higher interest rate on loans than what they offer on deposits. The difference between what is charged from borrowers and what is paid to depositors is their main source of income.

The role of Banks in the Economy of India

The banking system plays an important role in the modern economic world bank collect the saving of the individual and lend them out to business people and manufacturer. Thus, the bank plays an important role in the creation of new capital in the country.

10th Economics Chapter 3 Important Questions Set – 3

What do you understand by the two different kind of credit situation? Explain with example.

A large number of transactions in our day-to-day activities involve credit in some form or the other. Credit (loan) refers to an agreement in which the lender supplies the borrower with money, goods or services in return for the promise of future payment. But in this case, Salim obtains credit to meet the working capital needs of production. The credit helps him to meet the ongoing expenses of production, complete production on time, and thereby increase his earnings. Credit therefore plays a vital and positive role in this situation.

What is main demand of credit in rural areas?

In rural areas, the main demand for credit is for crop production. Crop costs on seeds, fertilisers, pesticides, water, electricity, repair of equipment, etc. There is a minimum stretch of three to four months between the time when the farmers buy these inputs and when they sell the crop. Farmers usually take crop loans at the beginning of the season and repay the loan after harvest.

What do you understand by the debt trap? Explain with an example.

The failure of the crop made loan repayment impossible. One had to sell part of the land to repay the loan. Credit, instead of helping a person improve his earnings, left his worse off. This is an example of what is commonly called debt-trap. Credit in this case pushes the borrower into a situation from which recovery is very painful. In one situation credit helps to increase earnings and therefore the person is better off than before. But in other situation due to crop failure, credit pushes the person into a debt trap. One is clearly much worse off than before. Whether credit would be useful or not, therefore, depends on the risks in the situation and whether there is some support, in case of loss.

Why does bank demand for collateral for providing loans?

Collateral refers to any property or asset that is provided by a borrower to the lender for security the loan. If the borrower fails to repay the loan, the lender has the right to sell the asset or collateral to obtain payment. Property such as land titles, deposits with banks, livestock, vehicle, are some common examples of collateral used for borrowing.

Terms of Credit

Interest rate, collateral and documentation requirement, and the mode of repayment together comprise what is called the terms of credit. The terms of credit vary substantially from one credit arrangement to another. They may vary depending on the nature of the lender and the borrower. The next section will provide examples of the varying terms of credit in different credit arrangements.

10th Economics Chapter 3 Important Questions Set – 4

Why there is a need of increasing scope of formal loans in India? Explain briefly?

It is necessary that banks and cooperative source increases lending particularly in the rural areas so that the dependence of poor on informal sources of credit reduces. It is important that the formal credit is distributed more equally so that poor can get the loan easily and at very cheap rate of interest. This would lead to higher incomes and many people could then borrow cheaply for a variety of needs. They could grow crops, do business, set up small-scale industries etc. They could set up new industries or trade in goods.

How does Reserve Bank of India supervise the functioning of formal sources of loans?

The Reserve Bank of India supervises the functioning of formal sources of loans. For instance, we have seen that the banks maintain a minimum cash balance out of the deposits they receive. The RBI monitors the banks in actually maintaining cash balance. Similarly, the RBI sees that the banks give loans not just to profit-making businesses and traders but also to small cultivators, small scale industries, to small borrowers etc. Periodically, banks have to submit information to the RBI on how much they are lending, to whom, at what interest rate, etc. Thus, it is necessary that banks and cooperatives increase their lending particularly in the rural areas, so that the dependence on informal sources of credit reduces.

Describe the organisation works in informal sector?

There is no organisation which supervises the credit activities of lenders in the informal sector. They can lend at whatever interest rate they choose. There is no one to stop them from using unfair means to get their money back. Compared to the formal lenders most of the informal lenders charge as much higher interest on loans. Thus, the cost to the borrower of informal loans is much higher.

What is meant by collateral?

A property or something valuable that you agree to some body if you cannot pay back money that you have borrower.

Self-helping Groups

The idea is to organise rural poor, in particular women, into small Self Help Groups (SHGs) and pool (collect) their savings. A typical SHG has 15-20 members, usually belonging to one neighborhood, who meet and save regularly. Saving per member varies from ₹25 to ₹100 or more, depending on the ability of the people to save. Members can take small loans from the group itself to meet their needs.

The group charges interest on these loans but this is still less than what the moneylender charges. Loan is sanctioned in the name of the group and is meant to create self- employment opportunities for the members. For instance, small loans are provided to the members for releasing mortgaged land, for meeting working capital needs (e.g. buying seeds, fertilisers, raw materials like bamboo and cloth), for housing materials, for acquiring assets like sewing machine, handlooms, cattle, etc.

10th Economics Chapter 3 Important Questions Set – 5

What is the main sources of credit for the rich families in the cities?

The main sources of credit for the rich families in the cities is formal sector.

In India what is the main informal source of loan?

Landlord, money lenders, relatives and friends etc.

“Before taking a loan, a person has to full fill some term and condition”. What are these condition?

Before taking a loan a person has to full fill these term and condition
Interest rate
Mode of repayment

How does the SHGs help borrowers overcome the problem of lack of collateral?

The SHGs help borrowers overcome the problem of lack of collateral. They can get timely loans for a variety of purposes and at a reasonable interest rate. Moreover, SHGs are the building blocks of organisation of the rural poor. Not only does it help women to become financially self-reliant, the regular meetings of the group provide a platform to discuss and act on a variety of social issues such as health, nutrition, domestic violence, etc.

The Repayment of the Loan

The group decides as regards the loans to be granted — the purpose, amount, interest to be charged, repayment schedule etc. Also, it is the group which is responsible for the repayment of the loan. Any case of non- repayment of loan by any one member is followed up seriously by other members in the group. Because of this feature, banks are willing to lend to the poor women when organised in SHGs, even though they have no collateral as such.

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Last Edited: January 27, 2022