Class 10 History Chapter 1 Important Questions

Class 10 History Chapter 1 Important Questions and Notes of the Rise of Nationalism in Europe updated for new academic session 2020-21 based on latest NCERT Books and following the new CBSE Curriculum 2020-2021.

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Class 10 History Chapter 1 Important Questions 2020-21

Class:10
Subject:History
Contents:Important Questions

10th History Chapter 1 Important Questions & Notes

Class 10 History Chapter 1 Important Questions are given below to study online for new acadmic session 2020-21. These important questions contains the CBSE Board questions and varsity of questions from CBSE Sample Papers for practice. Ask your doubts in Discussion Forum to get proper answer and share your knowledge with your friends here.

10th History Chapter 1 Important Questions Set – 1

Give a short on Frederic Sorrieu, who prepared a series of four prints visualising dream of world?

In 1848, Frédéric Sorrieu, a French artist, prepared a series of four prints visualising
his dream of a world made up of ‘democratic and social Republics’, as he called them. the series, shows the peoples of Europe and America – men and women of all ages and social classes– marching in a long train, and offering homage to the statue of Liberty as they pass by it they recognise the torch of Enlightenment she bears in one hand and the Charter of the Rights of Man in the other. On the earth remains of the symbols of absolutist institutions. In Sorrieu’s in the foreground of the image lie the shattered utopian vision the peoples of the world are grouped as distinct nations, identified through their flags and national costume.

Who were German and what is the colour of flag?

Germany, bearing the black, red and gold flag. German peoples did not yet exist as a united nation – the flag they carry is an expression of liberal hopes in 1848 to unify the numerous German-speaking principalities into a nation-state under a democratic constitution. Following the German peoples are the peoples of Austria, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Lombardy, Poland, England, Ireland, Hungary and Russia.

When was first clear expression of nationalism come into the France?

The first clear expression of nationalism came with the French Revolution in 1789. France, as you would remember, was a full-fledged territorial state in 1789 under the rule of an absolute monarch The political and constitutional changes that came in the wake of the French Revolution led to the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy to a body of French citizens. The revolution proclaimed that it was the people who would henceforth constitute the nation and shape its destiny.

What measures and practices introduced by the French revolutionaries?

When the French revolutionaries introduced various measures and practices that could create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people. The ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasised the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution. A new French flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the former royal standard. The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly. New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of the nation. A centralised administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory. Internal customs duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted Regional dialects were discouraged and French, as it was spoken. and written in Paris, became the common language of the nation.

The Nation State and its Three Feature

During the nineteenth century, nationalism emerged as a force which brought about sweeping changes in the political and mental world of Europe. The end result of these changes was the emergence of the nation-state in place of the multi-national dynastic empires of Europe. The concept and practices of a modern state, in which a centralised power exercised sovereign control over a clearly defined territory, had been developing over a long period of time in Europe. But a nation-state was one in which the majority of its citizens, and not only its rulers, came to develop a sense of common identity and shared history or descent.

10th History Chapter 1 Important Questions Set – 2

How did French revolution inspire the counties of Europe for nationalism?

When the news of the events in France reached the different cities of Europe, students and other members of educated middle classes began setting up Jacobin clubs. Their activities and campaigns prepared the way for the French armies which moved into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and much of Italy in the 1790s. With the outbreak of the revolutionary wars, the French armies began to carry the idea of nationalism abroad the wide swathe of territory that came under his control, Napoleon set about introducing many of the reforms that he had already introduced in France. Through a return to monarchy Napoleon had, no doubt, destroyed democracy in France, but in the administrative field he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient.

Name the kingdom of Germany, Italy, and Switzerland?

Germany, Italy and Switzerland were divided into kingdoms, duchies and cantons whose rulers had their autonomous territories. Eastern and Central Europe were under autocratic monarchies within the territories of which lived diverse peoples. They did not see themselves as sharing a collective identity or a common culture. In Hungary, half of the population spoke Magyar while the other half spoke a variety of dialects. Bohemians and Slovaks to the north, Slovenes in Carniola, Croats to the south, and Roumans to the east in Transylvania

Describe the difference between Aristocracy and New Middle Class?

Socially and politically, a landed aristocracy was the dominant class on the continent. Europe the members of this class were united by a common way of life that cut across regional divisions. They owned estates in the countryside and also town-houses. They spoke French for purposes of diplomacy and in high society. To the west, the bulk of the land was farmed by tenants and small owners, while in Eastern and Central Europe the pattern of landholding was characterised by vast estates which were cultivated by serfs. In 1750’s Industrialisation began in England in the second half of the eighteenth century, but in France and parts of the German. In its wake, new social groups came into being: a working-class population, and middle classes made up of industrialists, businessmen, professionals.

What is Liberalism in sense of society and economy?

The meaning of ‘liberalism’ derives from the Latin root liber, meaning free. For the new middle classes liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law. There is some political experiment in liberal democracy are the right to vote and to get elected was granted exclusively to property-owning men. Men without property and all women were excluded from political rights. Only for a brief period under the Jacobins did all adult males enjoy suffrage. However, the Napoleonic Code went back to limited suffrage and reduced women to the status of a minor, subject to the authority of fathers and husbands. Throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries women and non-propertied men organised opposition movements demanding equal political rights.

How many custom barriers paid by people of Europe?

A merchant travelling in 1833 from Hamburg to Nuremberg to sell his goods would have had to pass through 11 customs barriers and pay a customs duty of about 5 per cent at each one of them. them. Duties were often levied according to the weight or measurement of the goods. As each region had its own system of weights and measures this involved time-consuming calculation. There are some cloth, for example, was the elle which in each region stood for a different length. An Elle of textile material bought in Frankfurt would get you54.7 cm of cloth, in Mainz 55.1 cm, in Nuremberg 65.6 cm, in Freiburg 53.5 cm.

The Napoleon Code

This Code was exported to the regions under French control. In the Dutch Republic, in Switzerland, in Italy and Germany, Napoleon simplified administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues. Peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen enjoyed a new-found freedom. Businessmen and small-scale producers of goods, in particular, began to realise that uniform laws, standardised weights and measures, and a common national currency would facilitate the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one region to another.

10th History Chapter 1 Important Questions Set – 3
What was zollverein? Describe its major steps to improve economy?

In 1834, a customs union or zollverein was formed at the initiative of Prussia and joined by most of the German states. There are some major steps to improve economy: The union abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to two. The creation of a network of railways further stimulated mobility, harnessing economic interests to national unification. A wave of economic nationalism strengthened the wider nationalist sentiments growing at the time.

Who and how introduce conservatism in Europe?

In 1815 by the Napoleon, defeat European Government were deriving the spirit of conservatism. Conservatives believed that established, traditional institutions of state and society – like the monarchy, the Church, social hierarchies, property and the family –should be preserved. Most conservatives, however, did not propose a return to the society of pre-revolutionary days. Rather, they realised, from the changes initiated by Napoleon, that modernisation could in fact strengthen traditional institutions like the monarchy.

Who did estate treaty of Vienna of !815?

The Treaty of Vienna of 1815 with the object of undoing most of the changes that had come about in Europe during the Napoleonic wars. The Bourbon dynasty, which had been deposed during the French Revolution, was restored to power, and France lost the territories it had annexed under Napoleon They setup boundaries of France it prevent for their future of the Netherlands, which included Belgium, was set up in the north and Genoa was added to Piedmont in the south. Prussia was given important new territories on its western frontiers, while Austria was given control of northern Italy. But the German confederation of 39 states that had been set up by Napoleon was left untouched. In the east, Russia was given part of Poland while Prussia was given a portion of Saxony.

Who was Lord Bourbon?

The lord Bourbon kings who had been restored to power during the conservative reaction after 1815, were now overthrown by liberal revolutionaries who installed a constitutional monarchy with Louis Philippe at its head. ‘When France sneezes,’ Metternich once remarked, ‘the rest of Europe catches cold.’

Giuseppe Mazzini

To be revolutionary at this time meant a commitment to oppose monarchical forms that had been established after the Vienna Congress, and to fight for liberty and freedom. Most of these revolutionaries also saw the creation of nation-states as a necessary part of this struggle for freedom. He was born in Genoa in 1807, He was thea member of the secret societyof the Carbonari. As a young man of 24, he was sent into exile in1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria. He subsequently founded two more underground societies, first, Young Italy in Marseilles and then, Young Europe in Berne, whose members were like-minded young men from Poland, France, Italy and the German states Mazzini’s relentless opposition to monarchy and his vision of democratic republics frightened the conservatives.

10th History Chapter 1 Important Questions Set – 4
How did Greece get Independent?

The Greece got the support from other Greeks living in exile and also from many West Europeans who had sympathies for ancient Greek culture. Poets and artists lauded Greece as the cradle of European civilisation and mobilised public opinion to support its struggle against a Muslim empire. Lord Byron, the Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognised Greece as an independent nation.

By whom conservative over through in the France?

An event that mobilised nationalist feelings among the educated elite across Europe was the Greek war of independence. Greece had been part of the Ottoman Empire since the fifteenth century.

When was Poland partitioned and why did Poland no longer existed its independent?

The Poland was being partitioned at the end of the eighteenth century by the Great Powers – Russia, Prussia and Austria. Even though Poland no longer existed as an independent territory, national feelings were kept alive through music and language. Karol Kurpinski, for example celebrated the national struggle through his operas and music, turning folk dances like the polonaise and mazurka into nationalist symbols Language also played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. After Russian occupation, the Polish language was forced out of schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere. In 1831, an armed rebellion against Russian rule took place which was ultimately crushed.

Describe the Hunger, Hardship and popular revolt?

When the years of great economic hardship. In 1830’s The first half of the nineteenth century saw an enormous increase in population all over Europe. In most countries there were more seekers of jobs than employment. Population from rural areas migrated to the cities to live in overcrowded slums. Small producers in towns were often faced with stiff competition from imports of cheap machine-made goods from England, where industrialisation was more advanced than on the continent. This was especially so in textile production, which was carried out mainly in homes or small workshops and was only partly mechanised. In those regions of Europe where the aristocracy still enjoyed power, peasants struggled under the burden of feudal dues and obligations. The rise of food prices or a year of bad harvest led to widespread pauperism in town and country.

Romanticism

The development of nationalism did not come about only through wars and territorial expansion. Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation: art and poetry, stories and music helped express and shape nationalist feelings. Let us look at Romanticism, a cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment. Other Romantics such as the German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803) claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people – das volk. It was through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances that the true spirit of the nation (volksgeist) was popularised.

10th History Chapter 1 Important Questions Set – 5
Describe the impact revolution of the liberals 1848 in Europe?

The impact revolution of liberals are the monarch and a republic based on universal male suffrage had been proclaimed. – men and women of the liberal middle classes combined their demands for constitutionalism with national unification. They took advantage of the growing popular unrest to push their demands for the creation of a nation-state on parliamentary principle In the German regions a large number of political members were middle-class professionals, businessmen and associations whose prosperous artisans came together in the city of Frankfurt and decided to vote for an all-German National Assembly.

How did women start representation and what was reaction of national assembly in Europe?

Women had formed their own political associations, founded newspapers and taken part in political meetings and demonstrations. Despite this they were denied The issue of extending political rights to women was a controversial one within the liberal movement, in which large numbers of women had participated actively over the years. The reaction of national assembly was the years after 1848, the autocratic monarchies of Central and Eastern Europe began to introduce the changes that had already taken place in Western Europe before 1815. Thus serfdom and bonded labour were abolished both in the Habsburg dominions and in Russia. The Habsburg rulers granted more autonomy to the Hungarians in 1867.

Explain the contribution of Otto von Bismarck in German Unification?

The contribution of Otto van Bismarck the architect of this process carried out with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy. Three wars over seven years – with Austria, Denmark and France – ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification. In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles. Otto von Bismarck gathered in the unheated Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles to proclaim the new German Empire headed by Kaiser William I of Prussia.

Describe the unification of Italy? Why it is called that unification of Britain is not come out of struggle?

During the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini had sought to put together a coherent programme for a unitary Italian Republic. The failure of revolutionary uprisings both in 1831 and1848 meant that the mantle now fell on Sardinia-Piedmont under its ruler King Victor Emmanuel II to unify the Italian states through war. In the eyes of the ruling elites of this region, a unified Italy offered them the possibility of economic development and political dominance. Chief Minister Cavour who led the movement to unify the regions of Italy was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat. Like many other wealthy and educated members of the Italian elite, he spoke French much better than he did Italian. When the year of 1860, they marched into South Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and succeeded in winning the support of the local peasants in order to drive out the Spanish rulers.

How did Britain became a United Kingdom?

The Act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland that resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’ meant, in effect, that England was able to impose its influence on Scotland. The British parliament was henceforth dominated by its English members. The growth of a British identity meant that Scotland’s distinctive culture and political institutions were systematically suppressed. The Catholic clans that inhabited the Scottish Highlands suffered terrible repression whenever they attempted to assert their independence. The Scottish Highlanders were forbidden to speak their Gaelic language or wear their national dress, and large numbers were forcibly driven out of their homeland.

The Making of Germany and Italy

After 1848, nationalism in Europe moved away from its association with democracy and revolution. Nationalist sentiments were often mobilised by conservatives for promoting state power and achieving political domination over Europe. Germany and Italy came to be unified as nation-states. As you have seen, nationalist feelings were widespread among middle-class Germans, who in 1848 tried to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation-state governed by an elected parliament. From then on, Prussia took on the leadership of the movement for national unification.

10th History Chapter 1 Important Questions Set – 6
Why did female figure became allegory?

In other words they represented a country as if it were a person. Nations were then portrayed as female figures. The female form that was chosen to personify the nation did not stand for any particular woman in real life; rather it sought to give the abstract idea of the nation a concrete form. That is, the female figure became an allegory of the nation.

Describe about Allegory of the France with their symbol and significance?

France she was christened Marianne, a popular Christian name, which underlined the idea of a people’s nation. Her characteristics were drawn from those of Liberty and the Republic – the red cap, the tricolour, the cockade. Statues of Marianne were erected in public squares to remind the public of the national symbol of unity and to persuade them to identify with it. Marianne images were marked on coins and stamps. Similarly, Germania became the allegory of the German nation. In visual representations, Germania wears a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism.

In Europe, which area is called Balkans and Why?

The most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871 was the area called the Balkans. The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variation comprising modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro whose inhabitants were broadly known as the Slavs. A large part of the Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire.

Why did Nationalist conflict rise in the Balkans?

The Balkan states were fiercely jealous of each other and each hoped to gain more territory at the expense of the others. Matters were further complicated because the Balkans also became the scene of big power rivalry. During this period, there was intense rivalry among the European powers over trade and colonies as well as naval and military might. These rivalries were very evident in the way the Balkan problem unfolded.

How were inspired by the sense of collective national Unity?

The anti-imperial movements that developed everywhere were nationalist, in the sense that they all struggled to form independent nation-states, and were inspired by a sense of collective national unity, forged in confrontation with imperialism. European ideas of nationalism were nowhere replicated, for people everywhere developed their own specific variety of nationalism. But the idea that societies should be organised into ‘nation-states’ came to be accepted as natural and universal.

Catholics and Protestants

The deeply distribution of Catholics and Protestants The English helped the Protestants of Ireland to establish their dominance over a largely Catholic country Catholic revolts against British dominance were suppressed. After a failed revolt led by Wolfe Tone and his United Irishmen (1798), Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801. A new ‘British nation’ was forged through the propagation of a dominant English culture. The symbols of the new Britain – the British flag (Union Jack), the national anthem (God Save Our Noble King), the English language – were actively promoted and the older nations survived only as subordinate partners in this union.

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