Heuristic search plays a key role in artificial intelligence. In this section, you will learn in detail about it.

Heuristic is a rule of thumb which drives us to the probable solution. Most issues in artificial intelligence are of exponential nature and have many possible solutions. You don't know exactly which solutions are correct and checking all the solutions would be very expensive.

Thus, the use of heuristic narrows down the search for solution and eliminates the wrong options. The technique of using heuristic to lead the search in search space is called Heuristic Search. Heuristic techniques are exceptionally useful because the search can be boosted when you use them.

There are two types of control strategies or search strategies: uninformed and informed. They are clarified in detail as given here −

It is additionally called blind search or blind control strategy. It is named so because there is information only about the problem definition, and no other additional information is available about the states. This kind of search methods would search the whole state space for getting the solution. Breadth First Search (BFS) and Depth First Search (DFS) are the examples of uninformed search.

It is additionally called heuristic search or heuristic control strategy. It is named so because there is some extra information about the states. This extra information is useful to compute the preference among the child nodes to explore and expand. There would be a heuristic function related with each node. Best First Search (BFS), A*, Mean and Analysis are the examples of informed search.

Constraint means restriction or limitation. In AI, constraint satisfaction issues are the problems which must be solved under some constraints. The focus must be on not to violate the constraint while solving such issues. Finally, when we reach the final solution, CSP must obey the restriction.

The previous sections dealt with creating constraint satisfaction issues. Presently, let us apply this to real world problems too. Some examples of real world problems solved by constraint satisfaction are as per the following −

With the assistance of constraint satisfaction issue, we can solve algebraic relations. In this example, we will try to solve a simple algebraic relation **a*2 = b**. It will return the value of **a** and **b** within the range that we would characterize.

After finishing this Python program, you would be able to understand the basics of solving problems with constraint satisfaction.

Note that before writing the program, we need to install Python package called python-constraint. You can install it with the assistance of the following command −

pip install python-constraint

The following steps show you a Python program for solving algebraic relation utilizing constraint satisfaction −

Import the **constraint** package utilizing the following command −

from constraint import *

Now, create an object of module named **problem()** as appeared below −

problem = Problem()

Now, define variables. Note that here we have two variables a and b, and we are characterizing 10 as their range, which means we got the solution within first 10 numbers.

problem.addVariable('a', range(10)) problem.addVariable('b', range(10))

Next, characterize the specific constraint that we want to apply on this issue. Observe that here we are utilizing the constraint **a*2 = b**.

problem.addConstraint(lambda a, b: a * 2 == b)

Now, create the object of **getSolution()** module utilizing the following command −

solutions = problem.getSolutions()

Lastly, print the output utilizing the following command −

print (solutions)

You can watch the output of the above program as follows −

[{'a': 4, 'b': 8}, {'a': 3, 'b': 6}, {'a': 2, 'b': 4}, {'a': 1, 'b': 2}, {'a': 0, 'b': 0}]

A magic square is an arrangement of distinct numbers, generally integers, in a square grid, where the numbers in each row , and in each column , and the numbers in the diagonal, all add up to the similar number called the “magic constant”.

The following is a stepwise execution of simple Python code for producing magic squares −

Characterize a function named **magic_square**, as appeared below −

def magic_square(matrix_ms): iSize = len(matrix_ms[0]) sum_list = []

The following code shows the code for vertical of squares −

for col in range(iSize): sum_list.append(sum(row[col] for row in matrix_ms))

The following code shows the code for horizantal of squares −

sum_list.extend([sum (lines) for lines in matrix_ms])

The following code shows the code for horizontal of squares −

dlResult = 0 for i in range(0,iSize): dlResult +=matrix_ms[i][i] sum_list.append(dlResult) drResult = 0 for i in range(iSize-1,-1,-1): drResult +=matrix_ms[i][i] sum_list.append(drResult) if len(set(sum_list))>1: return False return True

Now, give the value of the matrix and check the output −

print(magic_square([[1,2,3], [4,5,6], [7,8,9]]))

You can watch that the output would be **False** as the sum is not up to the same number.

print(magic_square([[3,9,2], [3,5,7], [9,1,6]]))

You can watch that the output would be **True** as the sum is the same number, that is **15** here.