NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 2

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 2 Biological Classification to Study online as well as download in PDF form free. NCERT Solutions are applicable for all boards like Gujrat, UP, MP, CBSE, etc. who are using NCERT Books as course books.


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NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 2 Biological Classification
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Important Terms on Biological Classification

Two kingdom classification: Given by Carolous Linneaeus – Kingdom – plantae and kingdom –Animalia.
Five kingdom classification: By R.H. Whittaker, Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia are the five kingdoms.


Kingdom Monera
  • Has bacteria as sole members.
  • Bacteria can have shapes like: Coccus (spherical), Bacillus (rod-shaped), Vibrium (comma shaped) and spirillum (spiral shaped).
  • Bacteria found almost everywhere and can be Photosynthetic autotrophs, Chemosyn thetic autotrophs or Heterotrophs.
  • Halophiles (salt-loving), hermoacidophiles (in hot springs)
  • Methanogens (in marsh and in gut of ruminant animals. Produce methane gas.)
  • Photosynthetic autotrophs like Cyanobacteria (Blue-green algae BGA). Some like Anabaena and Nostoc have specialized cells called heterocysts for nitrogen fixation.
Kingdom PROTISTA
  • Comprises of all single celled eukaryotes
  • Forms a link between plants, animals and fungi.
    1. Chrysophytes (Has diatoms and golden algae/desmids) Fresh water/marine, photosynthetic, microscopic plankton.
    2. Dinoflagellates: Marine, photosynthetic cell wall has stiff cellulose plates.
    3. Euglenoids: Found in stagnant fresh water. Have protein rich layer – pellicle – which makes body flexible.
    4. Slime Moulds: Saprophytic protists, under suitable conditions form an aggregates called plasmodium, grows on decaying twigs and leaves.
    5. Protozoans: Are heterotrops and live as predators or parasites. Have four major groups.



Kingdom Fungi
  1. Heterotrophic organisms
  2. Non chlorpohyllous hyphae
  3. Reprouction can take place by vegetative means fragmentation, fission and budding. Asexual reproduction by spores – conidia, sporangiospores or zoospores. Sexual reproduction by Oospores, ascospores and basidiospores – produced in fruiting bodies.
  4. Network of hyphae called mycelium
  5. Hyphae which have multinucleate cytoplasm are called coenocytic hyphae
  6. Cell wall of chitin and polysaccharides
  7. Cosmopolitan. Grow in warm and humid places.
  8. Saprophytic, parasitic, symbiotic (Lichen and Mycorrhiza) e.g., Puccinia, (wheat rust disesae), Penicillium, Yeast is a unicellular fungus.



Viruses
  • They did not find a place in classification.
  • Not truly living.
  • Non-cellular organisms which take over the machinery of host cell on entering it and become living but as such they have inert crystalline structure appear non-living. So, difficult to call them living or non-living.
  • Virus means venom of poisonous fluid. Pastuer gave the term virus.
  • D.J. Ivanowsky found out that certain microbes caused Tobacco Mosaic Disease in tobacco plant.
  • Viruses are obligate parasites.