NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 5
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Morphology of Flowering Plants: Solutions
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Important Terms on Morphology of Flowering Plants
- The Root: The root is underground part of the plant and develops from elongation of radicle of t he embryo.
Main functions of root system
- Absorption of water and minerals from the soil.
- Provides anchorage to plant parts.
- Stores reserve food material and synthesises plant growth regulators (cytokinins).
Regions of Roots
- Root Cap: The root is covered at the apex by the thimble-like structure which protect the tender apical part.
- Region of meristematic activity: Cells of this region have the capability to divide; cells are small, thin walled with dense protoplasm.
- Region of elongation: Cell of this region are elongated and enlarged. This region is responsible for the growth of root in length.
- Region of Maturation: This region has differnentiated and matured cells.
Some epidermal cells form very fine and delicate thread like structures called root hairs.
- Modifications of Root: Roots are modified for support, storage of food, respiration.
Modifications of Stem
- In some plants the stems are modified to perform the function of storage of food, support, protection and vegetative propagation.
- For food storage: Rhizome (ginger, turmeric), Tuber (potato), Bulb (onion), Corm (Colocasia, Amorphophallus/Zamin-kand)
- For support: Stem tendrils of wawtermelon, grapevine, cucumber, pumpkins.
- For protection: Axilliary buds of stem of Citrus, Bougainvillea get modified into pointed thorns. They protect the plants from animals.
- For vegetative propagation: Underground stems of grass (runner), strawberry (stolons), leateral branches of mint and jasmine, Eichhornia (offsets).
- For assimilation of food: Flattened stem of Opuntia and cylindrical stem of Euphorbia contains chlorophyll and performs photosynthesis.
Types of aestivation
- Valvate: Sepals or petals just touch one another at the margin, without overlapping. e.g., Calotropis
- Twisted: Sepals or petals overlap the next sepal or petal e.g., China rose, Cotton, lady’s finger.
- Imbricate: The margins of sepals or petals overlap one another but not in any definite direction, e.g., Cassia, Gulmohar.
- Vexillary: The largest petal overlaps the two lateral petals which in turn overlap two smallest anterior petals, e.g., Bean, Pea.