NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 10 Microbes in Human Welfare in PDF form to free download and to Study Online without downloading. NCERT Solutions for class 12 and notes are also available based on latest Curriculum issued by CBSE.
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Solutions for 12 Biology Chapter 10
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Important Terms 12 Biology Chapter 10
- Baculovirus: Pathogens that attack insects and other arthropods. They are used to kill harmful pests and arthropods e.g., Nucleopolyhedro virus.
- Flocs: During secondary treatment of effluent, excessive growth of aerobic bacteria and fungi form a mass of mesh like structure called flocs.
- Bio-fertilisers: Microorganisms which produce fertilisers and enrich the soil e.g., bacteria, cyanobacteria and fungi.
- Bioactive Molecules: Molecules produced for commercial use from microbes and used for various purposes e. g., Trichoderma polysporum (fungus) is used to obtain immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine-A.
- Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD): Total amount of oxygen consumed by bacteria for oxidation of organic matter present in one litre of water.
- Immunosuppressive Agent: Chemicals which suppress the immunity against organ transplant.
- Organic Farming: Technique of farming, in which bio-fertilisers are used to enrich the soil, without using chemical fertilizers and pesticides to reduce their harmful effect on human health.
- Biological Control: Reduction of pest population by natural enemies minimising the use of harmful chemical pesticide. E.g. lady bird beetle can eradicate aphids.
- Thermal vents: The sites deep inside the geysers/hot springs and oceans where the average temp is as high as 100°C.
- Methanogens: Bacteria producing large quantity of methane during decomposition of organic matter.
- GAP: Ganga Action Plan
- KVIC: Khadi and Village Industries Commission
- TMV: Tobacco Mosaic Virus
- YAP: Yamuna Action Plan
- IPM: Integrated Pest Management.
Microbes as bio-fertilizers.
- Rhizobium: Have symbiotic association with roots of leguminous plants, help in atmospheric nitrogen fixation.
- Azospirillum and Azotobacter: Free living in soil and help in nitrogen 2-fixation enrich nitrogen 2-content of soil.
- Mycorriza: Symbiotic association of fungi with roots of higher plants. Fungi help in absorption of phosphorous from soil. It belong to genus Glomus Provide resistance to root borne pathogens, tolerance to salinity and drought.
- Cyanobacteria: Found in aquatic or terrestrial environment, help in nitrogen fixation, add organic matter to the soil, increase fertility of soil, e.g., Nostoc, Anabaene, Oscillatoria. In paddy fields, these acts as bio-fertilisers.