NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 9
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production to Study Online and in PDF file format to download FREE updated for academic session 2020-2021.Download NCERT Books 2020-21 and their Solutions for the other subjects also. Join the Discussion forum and share your views for the questions asked by others.
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 9
|Chapter 9:||Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production|
Class 12 Biology Chapter 9 Solutions in English
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production is given on this page to free download in PDF format for session 2020-21. NCERT Books and NCERT Solutions 2020-21 for other subjects are also available to download. Join the discussion forum to ask your doubts.
Important Terms related to Chapter 9
1. Apiculture: Rearing of honeybees for the production of honey, bee wax, royal jelly and bee Venom.
2. Artificial insemination: Introduction of semen of good quality of male into the vagina of female by artificial means.
3. Explant: Any part of plant excised from its original location and used for tissue culture.
4. Germplasm Collection: The entire collection having all the diverse alleles for all the genes in a given crop.
5. Inbreeding: Inbreeding refers to the mating of more closely related individuals within the same breed for 4-6 generations.
6. Out-breeding: Out-breeding is the breeding of the unrelated animals, which may be between individuals of the same breed (but having no common ancestors), or between different breeds (cross breeding or different species (interspecific hybridisation).
6. Out crossing: Out-breeding is the breeding of the unrelated animals, which may be between individuals of the same breed (but having no common ancestors), or between different breeds (cross breeding or different species (inter-specific hybridisation)
7. Cross breeding: The practice of mating of animals of same breed but have no common ancestor on either side of pedigree upto 4-6 generations. A single outcross helps to overcome the inbreeding depression.
8. Totipotency: The ability or capacity of a cell or explant to give rise to a complete plant is called totipotency.
ET: Embryo Transfer
IARI: Indian Agricultural Research Institute
IRRI: International Rice Research Institute
ICAR: Indian Council of Agriculture Research
MOET: Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer
NDRI: National Dairy Research Institute
Main steps in breeding a new genetic variety of crop
1. Germ-plasm collection or collection of variability
2. Evaluation and selection of parents
3. Cross breeding or hybridisation of selected parents.
4. Selection and testing of superior recombinants
5. Testing, release and commercialisation of new cultivars.
Know More about Plants
1. Plant breeding: Manipulation of plant species to create plants with desired qualities like high yield and disease resistance.
2. Blue Revolution: Increase in fish production due to utilisation of modern technology.
3. Mutation: Sudden inheritable change in the characters of an organism due to change in the sequence of bases in the gene(s).
Diseases of Plants
1. Viral: Tobacco mosaic, turnip mosaic
2. Bacterial: Black rot of crucifers, Blight of rice
3. Fungal: Rust of wheat, red rot of sugarcane, late blight of potato.
Important Questions on 12th Biology Chapter 9
Objectives of animal breeding
To increase the yield of animals.
To improve the desirable qualities of the animal produce.
To produce disease-resistant varieties of animals.
Choosing improved cattle breeds is an important factor of cattle management. Hybrid cattle breeds are produced for improved productivity. Therefore, it is essential that hybrid cattle breeds should have a combination of various desirable genes such as high milk production and high resistance to diseases. Cattle should also be given healthy and nutritious food consisting of roughage, fibre concentrates, and high levels of proteins and other nutrients.
Cattle’s should be housed in proper cattle-houses and should be kept in well ventilated roofs to prevent them from harsh weather conditions such as heat, cold, and rain. Regular baths and proper brushing should be ensured to control diseases. Also, time-to-time check-ups by a veterinary doctor for symptoms of various diseases should be undertaken.
Some major advantages of micropropagation are as follows:
Micropropagation helps in the propagation of a large number of plants in a short span of time.
The plants produced are identical to the mother plant.
It leads to the production of healthier plantlets, which exhibit better disease-resisting powers.