A longitudinal section of a flower reveals its reproductive parts. The outermost whorls consist of sepals (calyx) and petals (corolla). Inside, the male reproductive parts, stamens, have anthers on filaments. The central female part, the pistil, comprises an ovary at the base, containing ovules, a style leading upwards, and a stigma at the top for pollen reception. Draw an oval shape for the ovary at the bottom. Inside the ovary, draw a small circle for the ovule. Extend a tube (style) upwards from the ovary, ending in a flat circle (stigma). Around the style, draw filaments with anthers at the top, representing stamens. Draw petals and sepals around the stamens. Label each part: Petal, Sepal, Anther, Filament, Stigma, Style, Ovary, Ovule.

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The Sepals and Petals: External Flower Structures

In the longitudinal section of a flower, the outermost parts are the sepals and petals. Sepals, collectively called the calyx, protect the flower bud before it opens. Petals, or the corolla, are often colorful and attract pollinators. Together, the sepals and petals form the flower’s perianth, providing protection and aiding in pollination.

Stamens: The Male Reproductive Organs

Inside the perianth are the stamens, the male reproductive parts of the flower. Each stamen consists of a filament, a thin stalk, and an anther at the top. The anthers produce and release pollen, which contains the male gametes. The number and arrangement of stamens can vary significantly among different flower species.

diagram of the longitudinal section of a flower

The Pistil: Female Reproductive Structure

At the center of the flower lies the pistil, the female reproductive part. It is typically composed of one or more fused carpels. The pistil includes three main parts: the ovary at the base, which contains one or more ovules; the style, a slender stalk; and the stigma, a sticky surface at the top designed to capture and hold pollen.

The Ovary and Ovules

The ovary is a crucial component of the pistil. Inside the ovary are ovules, which will develop into seeds upon fertilization. The ovary itself will mature into a fruit, enclosing the seeds. The structure and positioning of the ovary (whether it is above or below the point of attachment of other floral parts) are important in the classification of flowers.

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Pollination and Fertilization

The longitudinal section of a flower also illustrates the process of pollination and fertilization. Pollen from the anthers must reach the stigma, often with the help of wind or pollinators. Once on the stigma, pollen germinates, and pollen tubes grow down the style to reach the ovules in the ovary, where fertilization occurs, leading to the development of seeds.

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Questions of Class 10 Science Chapter 7 in Detail

What is the importance of DNA copying in reproduction?
Why is variation beneficial to the species but not necessarily for the individual?
How does binary fission differ from multiple fission?
How will an organism be benefited if it reproduces through spores?
Can you think of reasons why more complex organisms cannot give rise to new individuals through regeneration?
Why is vegetative propagation practised for growing some types of plants?
Why is DNA copying an essential part of the process of reproduction?
How is the process of pollination different from fertilisation?
What is the role of the seminal vesicles and the prostate gland?
What are the changes seen in girls at the time of puberty?
How does the embryo get nourishment inside the mother’s body?
If a woman is using a copper-T, will it help in protecting her from sexually transmitted diseases?
What are the advantages of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction?
What are the functions performed by the testis in human beings?
Why does menstruation occur?
Draw a labelled diagram of the longitudinal section of a flower.
What are the different methods of contraception?
How are the modes for reproduction different in unicellular and multicellular organisms?
How does reproduction help in providing stability to populations of species?
What could be the reasons for adopting contraceptive methods?