Contraception methods vary in form and function. Barrier methods like condoms and diaphragms physically prevent sperm from reaching the egg. Hormonal contraceptives, such as pills, patches, injections, and vaginal rings, regulate or stop ovulation. Intrauterine devices (IUDs), both hormonal and copper, are implanted in the uterus to prevent fertilization. Sterilization procedures like vasectomy and tubal ligation provide a permanent solution. Natural methods include fertility awareness and withdrawal.

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Barrier Methods

Barrier methods of contraception physically block sperm from reaching the egg. The most common types include male and female condoms, which also provide protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Other barrier methods are diaphragms and cervical caps, which are used with spermicide to increase effectiveness. These methods are non-hormonal and typically used at the time of sexual intercourse.

Hormonal Contraceptives

Hormonal contraceptives work by altering a woman’s hormonal cycle to prevent ovulation, the release of an egg. They include birth control pills, contraceptive patches, vaginal rings, and injectables. These methods usually contain synthetic forms of estrogen and progesterone or progesterone alone. They may also thicken cervical mucus to block sperm and thin the uterine lining to prevent implantation.

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Intrauterine Devices (IUDs)

IUDs are small devices inserted into the uterus. There are two main types: copper IUDs, which release copper to prevent sperm from fertilizing the egg, and hormonal IUDs, which release progestin to thicken cervical mucus and thin the uterine lining. IUDs are long-term, reversible contraceptives, offering protection for several years.

Sterilization Procedures

Sterilization provides a permanent method of contraception. In men, vasectomy involves cutting or sealing the tubes that carry sperm. In women, tubal ligation involves blocking or cutting the fallopian tubes. These procedures are highly effective but are usually considered irreversible, making them suitable for individuals who are certain they do not want children in the future.

Natural Methods and Emergency Contraception

Natural family planning methods involve understanding the fertility cycle and abstaining from sex or using barrier methods during fertile periods. The withdrawal method, where the penis is removed from the vagina before ejaculation, is also considered a natural method but is less effective. Emergency contraception, such as the morning-after pill or a copper IUD, can be used after unprotected sex to prevent pregnancy.

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Questions of Class 10 Science Chapter 7 in Detail

What is the importance of DNA copying in reproduction?
Why is variation beneficial to the species but not necessarily for the individual?
How does binary fission differ from multiple fission?
How will an organism be benefited if it reproduces through spores?
Can you think of reasons why more complex organisms cannot give rise to new individuals through regeneration?
Why is vegetative propagation practised for growing some types of plants?
Why is DNA copying an essential part of the process of reproduction?
How is the process of pollination different from fertilisation?
What is the role of the seminal vesicles and the prostate gland?
What are the changes seen in girls at the time of puberty?
How does the embryo get nourishment inside the mother’s body?
If a woman is using a copper-T, will it help in protecting her from sexually transmitted diseases?
What are the advantages of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction?
What are the functions performed by the testis in human beings?
Why does menstruation occur?
Draw a labelled diagram of the longitudinal section of a flower.
What are the different methods of contraception?
How are the modes for reproduction different in unicellular and multicellular organisms?
How does reproduction help in providing stability to populations of species?
What could be the reasons for adopting contraceptive methods?