Class 10 Political Science Chapter 1 Important Extra Questions and notes of (Civics Chapter 1) Power Sharing updated for new academic session 2022-23 based on latest NCERT Books and following the new CBSE Curriculum for 2022-2023. Download Apps for offline as well as Online use. It is available for Android and IOS both operating systems. Ask your doubts in discussion forum and share your knowledge with the others.
Class 10 Political Science Chapter 1 Important Questions & Notes
|Subject:||Political Science – Civics|
|Contents:||Important Questions & Notes|
10th Political Science Chapter 1 Important Questions for2022-23
Class 10 Political Science Chapter 1 Important Questions are given below in sets of questions updated for CBSE Exams 2022-23. Contents and Apps are based on latest NCERT Books and following the new CBSE Syllabus 2022-23. Discussion Forum is being maintained to discussion your doubts in Hindi and English.
10th Political Science Chapter 1 Important Questions Set – 1
Describe the internal lingual diversity of Belgium?
Belgium is a small country in Europe smaller in area than the state of Haryana. It has borders with France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg. It has a population of a little over one crore, about half the population of Haryana. The ETHNIC composition of this small country is very complex. Of the country’s total population, 59 per cent lives in the Flemish region and speaks Dutch language. Another 40 per cent people live in the Wallonia region and speak French. Remaining one per cent of the Belgians speak German. In the capital city Brussels, 80 per cent people speak French while 20 per cent are Dutch- speaking.
Which thing led the tension between Dutch speaking and French speaking?
The minority French-speaking community was relatively rich and powerful. This was resented by the Dutch-speaking community who got the benefit of economic development and education much later. This led to tensions between the Dutch-speaking and French-speaking communities during the 1950s and 1960s. The tension between the two communities was more acute in Brussels. Brussels presented a special problem: the Dutch-speaking people constituted a majority in the country, but a minority in the capital.
In which continent does Belgium Lies? Name the main lingual communities in Belgium?
In Europe continent Belgium lies. The main lingual communities in Belgium are Dutch French and German.
Describe the laws that raise dispute between Tamils and Singhals in Sri Lanka?
The leaders of the Sinhala community sought to secure dominance over government by virtue of their majority. As a result, the democratically elected government adopted a series of MAJORITARIAN measures to establish Sinhala supremacy. The governments followed preferential policies that favoured Sinhala applicants for university positions and government jobs. A new constitution stipulated that the state shall protect and foster Buddhism.
The Regional and Lingual Situation in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka is an island nation, just a few kilometres off the southern coast of Tamil Nadu. It has about two crore people, about the same as in Haryana. Like other nations in the South Asia region, Sri Lanka has a diverse population. The major social groups are the Sinhala-speakers (74 per cent) and the Tamil-speakers (18 per cent). Among Tamils there are two sub- groups. Tamil natives of the country are called ‘Sri Lankan Tamils’ (13 per cent). The rest, whose forefathers came from India as plantation workers during colonial period, are called ‘Indian Tamils’. Tamils are concentrated in the north and east of the country. Most of the Sinhala- speaking people are Buddhists, while most of the Tamils are Hindus or Muslims. There are about 7 per cent Christians, who are both Tamil and Sinhala.
10th Political Science Chapter 1 Important Questions Set – 2
What was the view of Janilian about the law of 1956 in Sri Lanka?
In 1956, an Act was passed to recognise Sinhala as the only official language, thus disregarding Tamil. The governments followed preferential policies that favoured Sinhala applicants for university positions and government jobs. A new constitution stipulated that the state shall protect and foster Buddhism. All these government measures, coming one after the other, gradually increased the feeling of alienation among the Sri Lankan Tamils. They felt that the constitution and Dutch community could take advantage of its numeric majority and force its will on the French and German-speaking population.
How did the Tamilians shows them oppose on the law of 1956?
The Sri Lankan Tamils launched parties and struggles for the recognition of Tamil as an official language, for regional autonomy and equality of opportunity in securing education and jobs. But their demand for more autonomy to provinces populated by the Tamils was repeatedly denied. By1980s several political organisations were formed demanding an independent Tamil Eelam (state) in northern and eastern parts of Sri Lanka.
How did the between two communities in Sri Lanka became Problem and effected the development of Sri Lanka?
The distrust between the two communities turned into widespread conflict. It soon turned into a CIVIL WAR. As a result thousands of people of both the communities have been killed. Many families were forced to leave the country as refugees and many more lost their livelihoods. You have read (Chapter 1 of Economics textbook, Class X) about Sri Lanka’s excellent record of economic development, education and health. But the civil war has caused a terrible setback to the social, cultural and economic life of the country. It ended in 2009.
Describe the changes began amendment of new constitution?
Constitution prescribes that the number of Dutch and French-speaking ministers shall be equal in the central government. Some special laws require the support of majority of members from each linguistic group. Thus, no single community can make decisions unilaterally. Many powers of the central government have been given to state governments of the two regions of the country. The state governments are not subordinate to the Central Government. Brussels has a separate government in which both the communities have equal representation. The French- speaking people accepted equal representation in Brussels because the Dutch-speaking community has accepted equal representation in the Central Government.
The Effect of Constitutional Amendment on Belgium
The Belgian leaders took a different path. They recognised the existence of regional differences and cultural diversities. Between 1970 and 1993, they amended their constitution four times so as to work out an arrangement that would enable everyone to live together within the same country. The arrangement they worked out is different from any other country and is very innovative. Here are some of the elements of the Belgian model.
10th Political Science Chapter 1 Important Questions Set – 3
Describe the community government in Belgium?
Apart from the Central and the State Government, there is a third kind of government. This ‘community government’ is elected by people belonging to one language community – Dutch, French and German-speaking – no matter where they live. This government has the power regarding cultural, educational and language-related issues.
“Sri Lanka and Belgium both are democratic countries but both have different method of power sharing” Describe Hoe?
In Belgium, the leaders have realised that the unity of the country is possible only by respecting the feelings and interests of different communities and regions. Such a realisation resulted in mutually acceptable arrangements for sharing power. Sri Lanka shows us a contrasting example. It shows us that if a majority community wants to force its dominance over others and refuses to share power, it can undermine the unity of the country.
For a long time it was believed that all power of a government must reside in one person or group of persons located at one place. It was felt that if the power to decide is dispersed, it would not be possible to take quick decisions and to enforce them. But these notions have changed with the emergence of democracy. One basic principle of democracy is that people are the source of all political power.
What are the benefits of power Sharing in Democracy?
In a democracy, people rule themselves through institutions of self-government. In a good democratic government, due respect is given to diverse groups and views that exist in a society. Therefore, it follows that in a democracy political power should be distributed among as many citizens as possible.
Power Sharing is Desirable
For different sets of reasons can be given in favour of power sharing. Firstly, power sharing is good because it helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups. There is a second, deeper reason why power sharing is good for democracies. Power sharing is the very spirit of democracy. A democratic rule involves sharing power with those affected by its exercise, and who have to live with its effects. People have a right to be consulted on how they are to be governed. A legitimate government is one where citizens, through participation, acquire a stake in the system. While prudential reasons stress that power sharing will bring out better outcomes, moral reasons emphasise the very act of power sharing as valuable.
10th Political Science Chapter 1 Important Questions Set – 4
Explain the vertical distribution in power sharing with example?
Such a general government for the entire country is usually called federal government. In India, we refer to it as the Central or Union Government. The governments at the provincial or regional level are called by different names in different countries. In India, we call them State Governments. This system is not followed in all countries. There are many countries where there are no provincial or state governments. But in those countries like ours, where there are different levels of government, the constitution clearly lays down the powers of different levels of government.
Explain Horizontal distribution in power sharing with example?
Power is shared among different organs of government, such as the legislature, executive and judiciary. Let us call this horizontal distribution of power because it allows different organs of government placed at the same level to exercise different powers. Such a separation ensures that none of the organs can exercise unlimited power. Each organ checks the others. This results in a balance of power among various institutions.
Power may also be shared among different social groups such as the religious and linguistic groups. ‘Community government’ in Belgium is a good example of this arrangement. In some countries there are constitutional and legal arrangements whereby socially weaker sections and women are represented in the legislatures and administration. Last year, we studied the system of ‘reserved constituencies’ in assemblies and the parliament of our country. This method is used to give minority communities a fair share in power. In Unit II, we shall look at various ways of accommodating social diversities.
How does the group show their part in power?
Power sharing arrangements can also be seen in the way political parties, pressure groups and movements control or influence those in power. In a democracy, the citizens must have freedom to choose among various contenders for power. In contemporary democracies, this takes the form of competition among different parties. Such competition ensures that power does not remain in one hand. In the long run, power is shared among different political parties that represent different ideologies and social groups. Sometimes this kind of sharing can be direct, when two or more parties form an alliance to contest elections. If their alliance is elected, they form a coalition government and thus share power.
Describe the amendments which played an important role in forming power in Belgium?
In Belgium between 1970 to 1993 they amended their constitution four times to live together within the same country. Constitutional prescribe that the number of Dutch and French speaker minister shall be equal in the central government. Many power of the central government have been give to state government of the region to their country.
Power Sharing is Necessary
Firstly, power sharing is good because it helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups. There is a second, deeper reason why power sharing is good for democracies. Power sharing is the very spirit of democracy. PRUDENTIAL and the second moral. While prudential reasons stress that power sharing will bring out better outcomes, moral reasons emphasise the very act of power sharing as valuable.
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