Class 10 Political Science Chapter 4 Important Questions

Class 10 Political Science Chapter 4 Important Extra Questions and Notes (Civics Chapter 4) Gender, Religion and Caste updated for new academic session 2020-2021 based on latest NCERT Books and following the new CBSE Curriculum 2020-21.

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Class 10 Political Science Chapter 4 Important Questions 2020-21

Class:10
Subject:Political Science – Civics
Contents:Important Questions

10th Political Science Chapter 4 Important Questions & Notes

Class 10 Political Science Chapter 4 Important Questions is given below updated for new academic session 2020-21. Download NCERT Solutions and Online/Offline Apps based on latest NCERT Books 2020-21 and following the new CBSE Syllabus for 2020-2021. Ask your doubts in Discussion Forum and get the proper answers from the subject experts.

10th Political Science Chapter 4 Important Questions Set – 1

What is the sexual division of labour?

Social division of labour is a system in which Boys and girls are brought up to believe that the main responsibility of women is housework and bringing up children. This is reflected in a SEXUAL DIVISION OF LABOUR in most families: women do all work inside the home such as cooking, cleaning, washing clothes, tailoring, looking after children, etc., and men do all the work outside the home. It is not that men cannot do housework; they simply think that it is for women to attend to these things. When these jobs are paid for, men are ready to take up these works. Most tailors or cooks in hotels are men. Similarly, it is not that women do not work outside their home.

How Political expression of gender division and political mobilization helped to improve woman role in public?

Political expression of gender division and political mobilization on this question helped to improve women’s role in public life. We now find women working as scientists, doctors, engineers, lawyers, university teachers which were earlier not managers and college and considered suitable for women. In some parts of the world, for example in Scandinavian countries such as Sweden, Norway and Finland, the participation of women in public life is very high.

What is Patriarchal?

Patriarchy mean Literally, rule by father, this concept is used to refer to a system that values men more and gives them power over women.

The Feminist Movement

Gradually the gender issue was raised in politics. Women in different parts of the world organised and agitated for equal rights. There were agitations in different countries for the extension of voting rights to women. These agitations demanded enhancing the political and legal status of women and improving their educational and career opportunities. More radical women’s movements aimed at equality in personal and family life as well. These movements are called FEMINIST movements.




10th Political Science Chapter 4 Important Questions Set – 2

Explain various disadvantage, discrimination and oppression faced by the Women?

Women face disadvantage, discrimination and oppression in various ways: The literacy rate among women is only 54 per cent compared with 76 per cent among men. Similarly, a smaller proportion of girl students go for higher studies. When we look at school results, girls perform as well as boys, if not better in some places. But they drop out because parents prefer to spend their resources for their boys’ education rather than spending equally on their sons and daughters. No wonder the proportion of women among the highly paid and valued jobs is still very small. On an average an Indian woman works one hour more than an average man every day. The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976 provides that equal wages should be paid to equal work. However, in almost all areas of work, from sports and cinema, to factories and fields, women are paid less than men, even when both do exactly the same work. In many parts of India parents prefer to have sons and find ways to have the girl child aborted before she is born. Such sex-selective abortion led to a decline in child sex ratio.

What is the way to have a fair proportion of women in the elected bodies in India?

One way to solve this problem is to make it legally binding to have a fair proportion of women in the elected bodies. This is what the Panchayati Raj has done in India. One-third of seats in local government bodies – in panchayats and municipalities – are now reserved for women. Now there are more than10 lakh elected women representatives in rural and urban local bodies.

What is the result of Women demand in reservation of Lok Sabha seats?

Women’s organisations and activists have been demanding a similar seat in the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies for women. A bill with this proposal has been pending before the Parliament for more than a decade. But there is no consensus over this among all the political parties. The bill has not been passed.

The Women’s Representation in India

In India, the proportion of women in legislature has been very low. For example, the percentage of elected women members in Lok Sabha has touched 12 per cent of its total strength for the first time in 2014. Their share in the state assemblies is less than 5 per cent. In this respect, India is among the bottom group of nations in the world. India is behind the averages for several developing countries of Africa and Latin America. In the government, cabinets are largely all-male even when a woman becomes the Chief Minister or the Prime Minister.




10th Political Science Chapter 4 Important Questions Set – 3
How can you say that Unlike gender differences, the religious differences are often expressed in the field of politics?

Unlike gender differences, the religious differences are often expressed in the field of politics in the following ways: Gandhi ji used to say that religion can never be separated from politics. What he meant by religion was not any particular religion like Hinduism or Islam but moral values that inform all religions. He believed that politics must be guided by ethics drawn from religion. Human rights groups in our country have argued that most of the victims of communal riots in our country are people from religious minorities. Women’s movement has argued that FAMILY LAWS of all religions discriminate against women. So they have demanded that government should change these laws to make them more equitable.

How are political acts not wrong as long as they treat every religion equally?

Ideas, ideals and values drawn from different religions can and perhaps should play a role in politics. People should be able to express in politics their needs, interests and demands as a member of a religious community. Those who hold political power should sometimes be able to regulate the practice of religion so as to prevent discrimination and oppression. These political acts are not wrong as long as they treat every religion equally.

What are the various forms of Communalism in Politics?

Communalism can take various forms in politics: The most common expression of communalism is in everyday beliefs. These routinely involve religious prejudices, stereotypes of religious communities and belief in the superiority of one’s religion over other religions. This is so common that we often fail to notice it, even when we believe in it. A communal mind often leads to a quest for political dominance of one’s own religious community. For those belonging to majority community, this takes the form of majoritarian dominance. Political mobilization on religious lines is another frequent form of communalism. This involves the use of sacred symbols, religious leaders, emotional appeal and plain fear in order to bring the followers of one religion together in the political arena. Sometimes communalism takes its most ugly form of communal violence, riots and massacre. India and Pakistan suffered some of the worst communal riots at the time of the Partition.

The Communalism

Communalism involves thinking along the following lines. The followers of a particular religion must belong to one community. Their fundamental interests are the same. Any difference that they may have is irrelevant or trivial for community life. It also follows that people who follow different religions cannot belong to the same social community. If the followers of different religion have some commonalities these are superficial and immaterial. Their interests are bound to be different and involve a conflict.

10th Political Science Chapter 4 Important Questions Set – 4
What is Family law?

Those laws that deal with family related matters such as marriage, divorce, adoption, inheritance, etc. In our country, different family laws apply to followers of different religions.

How is the secular state beneficial for people?

There is no official religion for the Indian state. Unlike the status of Buddhism in Sri Lanka, that of Islam in Pakistan and that of Christianity in England, our Constitution does not give a special status to any religion. The Constitution provides to all individuals and communities freedom to profess, practice and propagate any religion, or not to follow any. l The Constitution prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion. l At the same time, the Constitution allows the state to intervene in the matters of religion in order to ensure equality within religious communities. For example, it bans untouchability.

What make caste system different from other societies is that in this system, hereditary occupational division was sanctioned by rituals?

Caste system was based on exclusion of and discrimination against the ‘outcaste’ groups. They were subjected to the inhuman practice of untouchability That is why political leaders and social reformers like Jotiba Phule, Gandhiji, B.R. Ambedkar and Periyar Ramaswami Naicker advocated and worked to establish a society in which caste inequalities are absent.

The Secular State

Communalism was and continues to be one of the major challenges to democracy in our country. The makers of our Constitution were aware of this challenge. That is why they chose the model of a secular state. This choice was reflected in several constitutional provisions that we studied last year.




10th Political Science Chapter 4 Important Questions Set – 5
How castes and caste system in modern India have undergone great changes?

Partly due to their efforts and partly due to other socio-economic changes, castes and caste system in modern India have undergone great changes. With economic development, large scale URBANISATION, growth of literacy and education, OCCUPATIONAL MOBILITY and the weakening of the position of landlords in the villages, the old notions of CASTE HIERARCHY are breaking down. Now, most of the times, in urban areas it does not matter much who is walking along next to us on a street or eating at the next table in a restaurant. The Constitution of India prohibited any caste-based discrimination and laid the foundations of policies to reverse the injustices of the caste system.

How can you say that it is not politics that gets caste- ridden, it is the caste that gets politicized?

Each caste group tries to become bigger by incorporating within it neighboring castes or sub-castes which were earlier excluded from it. Various caste groups are required to enter into a coalition with other castes or communities and thus enter into a dialogue and negotiation. New kinds of caste groups have come up in the political arena like ‘backward’ and ‘forward’ caste groups. Thus, caste plays different kinds of roles in politics. In some situations, expression of caste differences in politics gives many disadvantaged communities the space to demand their share of power. In this sense-caste politics has helped people from Dalits and OBC castes to gain better access to decision making. Several political and non-political organisations have been demanding and agitating for an end to discrimination against particular castes, for more dignity and more access to land, resources and opportunities.

What are steps taken in politics that gets caste- ridden, it is the caste that gets politicized?

Each caste group tries to become bigger by incorporating within it neighboring castes or sub-castes which were earlier excluded from it. Various caste groups are required to enter into a coalition with other castes or communities and thus enter into a dialogue and negotiation. New kinds of caste groups have come up in the political arena like ‘backward’ and ‘forward’ caste groups. caste plays different kinds of roles in politics. In some situations, expression of caste differences in politics gives many disadvantaged communities the space to demand their share of power. In this sense-caste politics has helped people from Dalits and OBC castes to gain better access to decision making. Several political and non-political organisations have been demanding and agitating for an end to discrimination against particular castes, for more dignity and more access to land, resources and opportunities.

The Caste System in Politics

When parties choose candidates in elections, they keep in mind the caste composition of the electorate and nominate candidates from different castes so as to muster necessary support to win elections. When governments are formed, political parties usually take care that representatives of different castes and tribes find a place in it. Political parties and candidates in elections make appeals to caste sentiment to muster support. Some political parties are known to favour some castes and are seen as their representatives. Universal adult franchise and the principle of one-person-one-vote compelled political leaders to gear up to the task of mobilising and securing political support. It also brought new consciousness among the people of castes that were hitherto treated as inferior and low. The focus on caste in politics can sometimes give an impression that elections are all about caste and nothing else. Political parties and candidates in elections make appeals to caste sentiment to muster support. Some political parties are known to favour some castes and are seen as their representatives. Many political parties may put up candidates from the same caste (if that caste is believed to dominate the electorate in a particular constituency). Some voters have more than one candidate from their caste while many voters have no candidate from their caste.



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