Class 10 Geography Chapter 3 Important Extra Questions of Water Resources updated for new academic session 2023-24. All the contents are updated for UP Board, MP Board, Gujrat Board and all other boards who are using NCERT Books as Course Books. Download apps for offline use, which work without internet. Visit to discussion forum to share your knowledge with the other users.

Class 10 Geography Chapter 3 Important Questions

Contents:Important Questions

10th Geography Chapter 3 Water Resources Important Questions

Class 10 Geography Chapter 3 Important Questions are given below to prepare for school test or terminal exams as well as CBSE Board exams. Contents are updated for new academy session based on latest NCERT Books 2023-24 and following the new CBSE Syllabus. You can download Online and Offline Apps depending on the availability of internet.

10th Geography Chapter 3 Important Questions Set – 1

What we imagine when we may suffer from water scarcity?

It is difficult to imagine that we may suffer from water scarcity. The moment we speak of water shortages; we immediately associate it with regions having low rainfall or those that are drought prone. We instantaneously visualize the deserts of Rajasthan and women balancing many ‘matkas’ (earthen pots) used for collecting and storing water and travelling long distances to get water. True, the availability of water resources varies over space and time, mainly due to the variations in seasonal and annual precipitation, but water scarcity in most cases is caused by over-exploitation, excessive use and unequal access to water among different social groups.

Write about some example through which the water scarcity occurs?

Water scarcity may be an outcome of large and growing population and consequent greater demands for water, and unequal access to it. A large population requires more water not only for domestic use but also to produce more food. Hence, to facilitate higher food-grain production, water resources are being over-exploited to expand irrigated areas for dry-season agriculture. Irrigated agriculture is the largest consumer of water. Now it is needed to revolutionize the agriculture through developing drought resistant crops and dry farming techniques. You may have seen in many television advertisements that most farmers have their own wells and tube-wells in their farms for irrigation to increase their produce.

Today how many hydroelectric power contribute in the total electricity production?

Today, in India hydroelectric power contributes approximately 22 per cent of the total electricity produced. Moreover, multiplying urban centres with large and dense populations and urban lifestyles have not only added to water and energy requirements but have further aggravated the problem. If you look into the housing societies or colonies in the cities, you would find that most of these have their own groundwater pumping devices to meet their water needs.

How do we conserve and manage water?

Archaeological and historical records show that from ancient times we have been constructing sophisticated hydraulic structures like dams built of stone rubble, reservoirs or lakes, embankments and canals for irrigation. Not surprisingly, we have continued this tradition in modern India by building dams in most of our river basins.

Describe the Hydraulic structure in ancient time?

(i) In the first century B.C., Sringaverapura near Allahabad had sophisticated water harvesting system channeling the flood water of the river Ganga.
(ii) During the time of Chandragupta Maurya, dams, lakes and irrigation systems were extensively built.
(iii) Evidences of sophisticated irrigation works have also been found in Kalinga, (Odisha), Nagarjunakonda (Andhra Pradesh), Bennur (Karnataka), Kolhapur (Maharashtra), etc.
(iv) In the 11th Century, Bhopal Lake, one of the largest artificial lakes of its time was built.
(v) In the 14th Century, the tank in Hauz Khas, Delhi was constructed by Iltutmish for supplying water to Siri Fort area.

10th Geography Chapter 3 Important Questions Set – 2

What are Dams? Explain with some example?

Dams were traditionally built to impound rivers and rainwater that could be used later to irrigate agricultural fields. Today, dams are built not just for irrigation but for electricity generation, water supply for domestic and industrial uses, flood control, recreation, inland navigation and fish breeding. Hence, dams are now referred to as multi-purpose projects where the many uses of the impounded water are integrated with one another. For example, in the Sutluj-Beas river basin, the Bhakra – Nangal project water is being used both for hydel power production and irrigation. Similarly, the Hirakud project in the Mahanadi basin integrates conservation of water with flood control.

Which section of dam is called is called Spillway or Weir and How the dams are classified?

“Dam” refers to the reservoir rather than the structure. Most dams have a section called a spillway or weir over which or through which it is intended that water will flow either intermittently or continuously. Dams are classified according to structure, intended purpose or height. Based on structure and the materials used, dams are classified as timber dams, embankment dams or masonry dams, with several subtypes. According to the height, dams can be categorized as large dams and major dams or alternatively as low dams, medium height dams and high dams.

Discuss about the new environmental movement why is of purpose of this movement?

Multi-purpose projects and large dams have also been the cause of many new environmental movements like the ‘Narmada Bachao Andolan’ and the ‘Tehri Dam Andolan’ etc. Resistance to these projects has primarily been due to the large-scale displacement of local communities. Local people often had to give up their land, livelihood and their meagre access and control over resources for the greater good of the nation.

How the irrigation changed the cropping pattern of many region? Explain with example.

Irrigation has also changed the cropping pattern of many regions with farmers shifting to water intensive and commercial crops. This has great ecological consequences like salinization of the soil. At the same time, it has transformed the social landscape i.e. increasing the social gap between the richer landowners and the landless poor. As we can see, the dams did create conflicts between people wanting different uses and benefits from the same water resources. In Gujarat, the Sabarmati-basin farmers were agitated and almost caused a riot over the higher priority given to water supply in urban areas, particularly during droughts. Inter-state water disputes are also becoming common with regard to sharing the costs and benefits of the multi-purpose project.

What are the reason for the excessive use of Water?

Most of the objections to the projects arose due to their failure to achieve the purposes for which they were built. Ironically, the dams that were constructed to control floods have triggered floods due to sedimentation in the reservoir. Moreover, the big dams have mostly been unsuccessful in controlling floods at the time of excessive rainfall. The floods have not only devastated life and property but also caused extensive soil erosion. Sedimentation also meant that the flood plains were deprived of silt, a natural fertiliser, further adding on to the problem of land degradation. It was also observed that the multi-purpose projects induced earthquakes, caused water-borne diseases and pests and pollution resulting from excessive use of water.

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10th Geography Chapter 3 Important Questions Set – 3

What are the techniques used in ancient time for the consumption of water resources?

In ancient India, along with the sophisticated hydraulic structures, there existed an extraordinary tradition of water-harvesting system. People had in-depth knowledge of rainfall regimes and soil types and developed wide ranging techniques to harvest rainwater, groundwater, river water and flood water in keeping with the local ecological conditions and their water needs. In hill and mountainous regions, people built diversion channels like the ‘guls’ or ‘kuls’ of the Western Himalayas for agriculture. ‘Rooftop rainwater harvesting’ was commonly practised to store drinking water, particularly in Rajasthan. In the flood plains of Bengal, people developed inundation channels to irrigate their fields.

In arid or semi-arid region agriculture field stand in which form?

In arid and semi-arid regions, agricultural fields were converted into rain fed storage structures that allowed the water to stand and moisten the soil like the ‘khadins’ in Jaisalmer and ‘Johads’ in other parts of Rajasthan.

In the semi-arid and arid regions of Rajasthan, what technique use for storing drinking water?

In the semi-arid and arid regions of Rajasthan, particularly in Bikaner, Phalodi and Barmer, almost all the houses traditionally had underground tanks or tankas for storing drinking water. The tanks could be as large as a big room; one household in Phalodi had a tank that was6.1 metres deep, 4.27 metres long and 2.44 metres wide. The tankas were part of the well-developed rooftop rainwater harvesting system and were built inside the main house or the courtyard. They were connected to the sloping roofs of the houses through a pipe. Rain falling on the rooftops would travel down the pipe and was stored in these underground ‘tankas’. The first spell of rain was usually not collected as this would clean the roofs and the pipes.

When all other source is dried up which new source are used or storing drinking water?

The rainwater can be stored in the tankas till the next rainfall making it an extremely reliable source of drinking water when all other sources are dried up, particularly in the summers. Rainwater, or palar pani, as commonly referred to in these parts, is considered the purest form of natural water. Many houses constructed underground rooms adjoining the ‘tanka’ to beat the summer heat as it would keep the room cool.

10th Geography Chapter 3 Important Questions Set – 4

Describe the setup of Rooftop rain water harvesting?

The setup of Rooftop rain water harvesting are:
Rooftop rainwater is collected using a PVC pipe
Filtered using sand and bricks
Underground pipe takes water to sump for immediate usage
Excess water from the sump is taken to the well
Water from the well recharges the underground
Take water from the well (later).

Explain the rooftop harvesting in the village Thar?

Rooftop harvesting was common across the towns and villages of the Thar. Rainwater that falls on the sloping roofs of houses is taken through a pipe into an underground tanka (circular holes in the ground). built in the main house or in the courtyard. water being taken from a neighbour’s roof through a long pipe. Here the neighbour’s rooftop has been used for collection of rainwater. a hole through which rainwater flows down into an underground tanka.

Describe in Gendathur, a remote backward village in Mysuru, Karnataka, villagers have installed, in their household’s rooftop?

In Gendathur, a remote backward village in Mysuru, Karnataka, villagers have installed, in their household’s rooftop, rainwater harvesting system to meet their water needs. Nearly 200 households have installed this system and the village has earned the rare distinction of being rich in rainwater. harvesting system which is adapted here. Gendathur receives an annual precipitation of1,000 mm, and with 80 per cent of collection efficiency and of about 10 fillings, every house can collect and use about 50,000 litres of water annually. From the 200 houses, the net amount of rainwater harvested annually amounts to1,00,000 litres.

What are the cause of Water scarcity?

(i) Today in the modern world the number of industries increased and the industries conserve water in large amount to perform their different activities.
(ii) The industries require the high amount of hydroelectric power to run their large machines?
(iii) Ever the growing population were also the reason of water scarcity.
(iv) The industries also through their chemical waste in rivers, lakes, ponds, etc. which pollute the water and made unfit for human consumption.

10th Geography Chapter 3 Important Questions Set – 5

Describe the setup of bamboo irrigation system?

The setup of bamboo irrigation system are:
Bamboo pipes are used to divert perennial springs on the hilltops to the lower reaches by gravity.
The channel sections, made of bamboo, divert water to the plant site where it is distributed into branches, again made and laid out with different forms of bamboo pipes. The flow of water into the pipes is controlled by manipulating the pipe positions.
If the pipes pass a road, they are taken high above the land.
Reduced channel sections and diversion units are used at the last stage of water application. The last channel section enables water to be dropped near the roots of the plant.

How MNC’s exerting pressure on existing freshwater resources?

Post-independent India witnessed intensive industrialisation and urbanisation, creating vast opportunities for us. Today, large industrial houses are as commonplace as the industrial units of many MNCs (Multinational Corporations). The ever- increasing number of industries has made matters worse by exerting pressure on existing freshwater resources. Industries, apart from being heavy users of water, also require power to run them. Much of this energy comes from hydroelectric power.

What thing make harzardous water for human use?

There has been a growing concern that even if there is ample water to meet the needs of the people, much of it may be polluted by domestic and industrial wastes, chemicals, pesticides and fertilisers used in agriculture, thus, making it hazardous for human use.

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Last Edited: January 27, 2022