Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Important Questions Manufacturing Industries in updated for based on new academic session 2024-25 for all boards who are using NCERT Books as course books and following the latest CBSE Syllabus for session 2024-25. In Class 10 Geography Extra Questions, more questions will be added as per need of the students for practice. Assignments based on these questions will be made available for the current academic session 2024-25.

Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Important Questions

Contents:Important Questions

10th Geography Chapter 6 Important Questions for Boards

10th Geography Chapter 6 Important Questions Manufacturing Industries are given below with suggested answers. These questions covers the entire chapter of Class 10 Geography Chapter 6. Other questions may come as per need or suggestions received by the users.

10th Geography Chapter 6 Important Questions Set – 1

What is need of Manufacturing sector in India? Explain in brief.

Manufacturing sector is considered the backbone of development in general and economic development in particular mainly because–Manufacturing industries not only help in modernizing agriculture, which forms the backbone of our economy, they also reduce the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income by providing them jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors. Industrial development is a precondition for eradication of unemployment and poverty from our country. This was the main philosophy behind public sector industries and joint sector ventures in India. Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce, and brings in much needed foreign exchange. Countries that transform their raw materials into a wide variety of finished goods of higher value are prosperous. India’s prosperity lies in increasing and diversifying its manufacturing industries as quickly as possible.

How the agro-industries in India have given a major boost to agriculture by raising its productivity?

Agriculture and industry are not exclusive of each other. They move hand in hand. For instance, the agro-industries in India have given a major boost to agriculture by raising its productivity. They depend on the latter for raw materials and sell their products such as irrigation pumps, fertilisers, insecticides, pesticides, plastic and PVC pipes, machines and tools, etc. to the farmers. Thus, development and competitiveness of manufacturing industry has not only assisted agriculturists in increasing their production but also made the production processes very efficient.

What is the Industrial Location Shown in nature?

Industrial locations are complex in nature. After an industrial activity starts, urbanization follows. Sometimes, industries are located in or near the cities. Thus, Industrialisation and urbanization go hand in hand. Cities provide markets and also provide services such as banking, insurance, transport, labour, consultants and financial advice, etc. to the industry. Many industries tend to come together to make use of the advantages offered by the urban centres known as agglomeration economies.

Discuss about the most manufacturing units were located in India?

In the pre-Independence period, most manufacturing units were located in places from the point of view of overseas trade such as Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, etc. Consequently, there emerged certain pockets of industrially developed urban centres surrounded by a huge agricultural rural hinterland.

Contribution of Industry to National Economy

Over the last two decades, the share of manufacturing sector has stagnated at 17 per cent of GDP – out of a total of 27 per cent for the industry which includes 10 per cent for mining, quarrying, electricity and gas. This is much lower in comparison to some East Asian economies, where it is 25 to 35 per cent. The trend of growth rate in manufacturing over the last decade has been around 7 per cent per annum. The desired growth rate over the next decade is 12 per cent. Since 2003, manufacturing is once again growing at the rate of 9 to 10 per cent per annum. With appropriate policy interventions by the government and renewed efforts by the industry to improve productivity, economists predict that manufacturing can achieve its target over the next decade.

10th Geography Chapter 6 Important Questions Set – 2

Explain the classification of industries on the basis source of use of raw material?

On the basis of source of raw materials used:
Agro based: cotton, woolen, jute, silk textile, rubber and sugar, tea, coffee, edible oil.
Mineral based: iron and steel, cement, Aluminium, machine tools, petrochemicals.
According to their main role:
Basic or key industries are those which supply their products as raw materials to manufacture other goods e.g. iron and steel and copper smelting, aluminum smelting.
Consumer industries that produce goods for direct use by consumers – sugar, toothpaste, paper, sewing machines, fans etc.

Explain the manufacturing industries on the basis of capital investment?

On the basis of capital investment: A small scale industry is defined with reference to the maximum investment allowed on the assets of a unit. This limit has changed over a period of time. At present the maximum investment allowed is rupees one crore.

Explain the manufacturing industries on the basis of ownership?

On the basis of ownership:
Public sector, owned and operated by government agencies – BHEL, SAIL etc.
Private sector industries owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals –TISCO, Bajaj Auto Ltd., Dabur Industries.
Joint sector industries which are jointly run by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. Oil India Ltd. (OIL) is jointly owned by public and private sector.
Cooperative sector industries are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. They pool in the resources and share the profits or losses proportionately. Such examples are the sugar industry in Maharashtra, the coir industry in Kerala.

In India textile industry occupied which position?

The textile industry occupies unique position in the Indian economy, because it contributes significantly to industrial production, employment generation and foreign exchange earnings. It is the only industry in the country, which is self-reliant and complete in the value chain i.e., from raw material to the highest value added products.

Why is it important for our country to keep the mill sector loomage lower than power loom and handloom?

India exports yarn to Japan. Other importers of cotton goods from India are U.S.A., U.K., Russia, France, East European countries, Nepal, Singapore, Sri Lanka, and African countries. We have a large share in the world trade of cotton yarn. Our spinning mills are competitive at the global level and capable of using all the fibres we produce. The weaving, knitting and processing units cannot use much of the high quality yarn that is produced in the country. There are some large and modern factories in these segments, but most of the production is in fragmented small units, which cater to the local market.

Condition of Cotton Industry in India

In ancient India, cotton textiles were produced with hand spinning and handloom weaving techniques. After the 18th century, power-looms came into use. Our traditional industries suffered a setback during the colonial period because they could not compete with the mill-made cloth from England. In the early years, the cotton textile industry was concentrated in the cotton growing belt of Maharashtra and Gujarat. Availability of raw cotton, market, transport including accessible port facilities, labour, moist climate, etc. contributed towards its localization. This industry has close links with agriculture and provides a living to farmers, cotton boll pluckers and workers engaged in ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, designing, packaging, tailoring and sewing.

10th Geography Chapter 6 Important Questions Set – 3

Why is it important for us to improve our weaving sector instead of exporting yarn in large quantities?

We have made significant increase in the production of good quality long staple cotton, the need to import is still felt. Power supply is erratic and machinery needs to be upgraded in the weaving and processing sectors in particular. Other problems are the low output of labour and stiff competition with the synthetic fibre industry.

Explain in brief about the Sugar Industry?

India stands second as a world producer of sugar but occupies the first place in the production of gur and khandsari. The raw material used in this industry is bulky, and in haulage its sucrose content reduces. The mills are located in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana and Madhya Pradesh. Sixty per cent mills are in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.

Explain why industry is seasonal in nature so, it is ideally suited to the cooperative sector?

In recent years, there is a tendency for the mills to shift and concentrate in the southern and western states, especially in Maharashtra, this is because the cane produced here has a higher sucrose content. The cooler climate also ensures a longer crushing season. Moreover, the cooperatives are more successful in these states. Major challenges include the seasonal nature of the industry, old and inefficient methods of production, transport delay in reaching cane to factories and the need to maximize the use of baggage.

What is Mineral Based Industries?

Industries that use minerals and metals as raw materials are called mineral-based industries.

Explain the Iron and Steel Industries?

The iron and steel industry is the basic industry since all the other industries — heavy, medium and light, depend on it for their machinery. Steel is needed to manufacture a variety of engineering goods, construction material, defense, medical, telephonic, scientific equipment and a variety of consumer goods. Production and consumption of steel is often regarded as the index of a country’s development. Iron and steel is a heavy industry because all the raw materials as well as finished goods are heavy and bulky entailing heavy transportation costs. Iron ore, coking coal and lime stone are required in the ratio of approximately 4:2:1. Some quantities of manganese, are also required to harden the steel.

Textile industry

India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods and stands at second place as an exporter after Bangladesh. Most of the mills are located in West Bengal, mainly along the banks of the Hugli river, in a narrow belt. Factors responsible for their location in the Hugli basin are: proximity of the jute producing areas, inexpensive water transport, supported by a good network of railways, roadways and waterways to facilitate movement of raw material to the mills, abundant water for processing raw jute, cheap labour from West Bengal and adjoining states of Bihar, Odisha and Uttar Pradesh. Kolkata as a large urban centre provides banking, insurance and port facilities for export of jute goods.

10th Geography Chapter 6 Important Questions Set – 4

How the overall production of steel is sufficient to meet our domestic demand?

In the 1950s China and India produced almost the same quantity of steel. Today, China is the largest producer of steel. China is also the world’s largest consumer of steel. Chhotanagpur plateau region has the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries. It is largely, because of the relative advantages this region has for the development of this industry. These include, low cost of iron ore, high grade raw materials in proximity, cheap labour and vast growth potential in the home market. Though, India is an important iron and steel producing country in the world yet, we are not able to perform to our full potential largely due to: (a) High costs and limited availability of coking coal (b) Lower productivity of labour (c) Irregular supply of energy and (d) Poor infrastructure.

Write the full form of the following: BHEL, SAIL, EMS and NMCC.

(a) BHEL: Bharat Heavy Electronic Limited.
(b) SAIL: Steel authority of India Limited.
(c) EMS: Environment Management System.
(d) NMCC: The National Military Command Center.

What do you understand by the Aluminium Smelting?

Aluminium smelting is the second most important metallurgical industry in India. It is light, resistant to corrosion, a good conductor of heat, malleable and becomes strong when it is mixed with other metals. It is used to manufacture aircraft, utensils and wires. It has gained popularity as a substitute of steel, copper, zinc and lead in a number of industries.

Where Aluminium Smelting plant are located in India?

Aluminium smelting plants in the country are located in Odisha, West Bengal, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.

How would you evaluate the organic chemical?

Organic chemicals include petrochemicals, which are used for manufacturing of synthetic fibers, synthetic rubber, plastics, dye-stuffs, drugs and pharmaceuticals. Organic chemical plants are located near oil refineries or petrochemical plants. The chemical industry is its own largest consumer. Basic chemicals undergo processing to further produce other chemicals that are used for industrial application, agriculture or directly for consumer markets.

Chemical Industry in India

The Chemical industry in India is fast growing and diversifying. It comprises both large and small scale manufacturing units. Rapid growth has been recorded in both inorganic and organic sectors. Inorganic chemicals include sulphuric acid (used to manufacture fertilizers, synthetic fibres, plastics, adhesives, paints, dyes stuffs), nitric acid, alkalies, soda ash (used to make glass, soaps and detergents, paper) and caustic soda. These industries are widely spread over the country.

10th Geography Chapter 6 Important Questions Set – 5

What is Fertilizers industry? How it is establishing in India?

The fertilizer industry is centered around the production of nitrogenous fertilizers (mainly urea), phosphatic fertilizers and ammonium phosphate (DAP) and complex fertilizers which have a combination of nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), and potash (K). The third, i.e. potash is entirely imported as the country does not have any reserves of commercially usable potash or potassium compounds in any form. After the Green Revolution the industry expanded to several other parts of the country. Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Kerala contribute towards half of the fertilizer production. Other significant producers are Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Rajasthan, Bihar, Maharashtra, Assam, West Bengal, Goa, Delhi, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka.

Write the uses of cement industry?

Cement is essential for construction activity such as building houses, factories, bridges, roads, airports, dams and for other commercial establishments. This industry requires bulky and heavy raw materials like limestone, silica and gypsum. Coal and electric power are needed apart from rail transportation.

How the improvement shown in cement industry?

The first cement plant was set up in Chennai in 1904. After Independence the industry expanded. Improvement in the quality has found the produce a readily available market in East Asia, Middle East, Africa and South Asia apart from a large demand within the country. This industry is doing well in terms of production as well as export. Efforts are being made to generate adequate domestic demand and supply in order to sustain this industry.

What is the feature of Automobile industry?

Automobiles provide vehicle for quick transport of good services and passengers. Trucks, buses, cars, motor cycles, scooters, three-wheelers and multi-utility vehicles are manufactured in India at various centres. After the liberalisation, the coming in of new and contemporary models stimulated the demand for vehicles in the market, which led to the healthy growth of the industry including passenger cars, two and three-wheelers. The industry is located around Delhi, Gurugram, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur and Bengaluru.

How information technology helps in establishment of industry?

The electronics industry covers a wide range of products from transistor sets to television, telephones, cellular telecom, telephone exchange, radars, computers and many other equipments required by the telecommunication industry. Bengaluru has emerged as the electronic capital of India. Other important centres for electronic goods are Mumbai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow and Coimbatore. The major industry concentration is at Bengaluru, Noida, Mumbai, Chennai, Hyderabad and Pune. A major impact of this industry has been on employment generation. The continuing growth in the hardware and software is the key to the success of IT industry in India.

Air pollution

Air pollution is caused by the presence of high proportion of undesirable gases, such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide. Air- borne particulate materials contain both solid and liquid particles like dust, sprays mist and smoke. Smoke is emitted by chemical and paper factories, brick kilns, refineries and smelting plants, and burning of fossil fuels in big and small factories that ignore pollution norms. Toxic gas leaks can be very hazardous with long-term effects.

10th Geography Chapter 6 Important Questions Set – 6

What does NTPC refer to? List out the ways that NTPC has contributed to ward preservation of Natural environment?

(a) Optimum utilisation of equipment adopting latest techniques and upgrading existing equipment.
(b) Minimising waste generation by maximising ash utilisation.
(c) Providing green belts for nurturing ecological balance and addressing the question of special purpose vehicles for afforestation.
(d) Reducing environmental pollution through ash pond management, ash water recycling system and liquid waste management.
(e) Ecological monitoring, reviews and on- line database management for all its power stations.

What are the three different type of method used to control pollution?

(a) Primary treatment by mechanical means. This involves screening, grinding, flocculation and sedimentation.
(b) Secondary treatment by biological process
(c) Tertiary treatment by biological, chemical and physical processes. This involves recycling of wastewater.

Explain the ways through which we control the environmental degradation?

(i) Minimising use water for processing by reusing and recycling it in two or more successive stages
(ii) Harvesting of rainwater to meet water requirements
(iii) Treating hot water and effluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds. Treatment of industrial effluents can be done in three phases.

What is the effect of Water pollution?

Water pollution is caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes and affluent discharged into rivers. The main culprits in this regard are paper, pulp, chemical, textile and dyeing, petroleum refineries, tanneries and electroplating industries that let out dyes, detergents, acids, salts and heavy metals like lead and mercury pesticides, fertilisers, synthetic chemicals with carbon, plastics and rubber, etc. into the water bodies. Fly ash, phospo- gypsum and iron and steel slags are the major solid wastes in India.

What is the effect of Noise pollution?

Noise pollution not only results in irritation and anger, it can also cause hearing impairment, increased heart rate and blood pressure among other physiological effects. Unwanted sound is an irritant and a source of stress. Industrial and construction activities, machinery, factory equipment, generators, saws and pneumatic and electric drills also make a lot of noise.

Thermal pollution

Thermal pollution of water occurs when hot water from factories and thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling. Wastes from nuclear power plants, nuclear and weapon production facilities cause cancers, birth defects and miscarriages. Soil and water pollution are closely related. Dumping of wastes specially glass, harmful chemicals, industrial effluents, packaging, salts and garbage renders the soil useless. Rain water percolates to the soil carrying the pollutants to the ground and the ground water also gets contaminated.

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Last Edited: January 27, 2022