NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Macroeconomics Chapter 6 Case Study Questions updated for new academic session 2022-2023. Students can prepare here with Case Studies of class 12 Economics chapter 6 Open Economy Macroeconomics using Case Study MCQ and Case based questions.

Class 12 Macroeconomics Chapter 6 Case Study 1

All international locations have their personal currencies which might be with no trouble perfect inside their respective territories. Indian rupee in India, US greenback in America, pound in England, etc. However, foreign money of 1 country is normally now no longer generic in a few different countries. In case of a global price, foreign money of 1 country must be transformed into the foreign money of some other country due to the fact each country needs the price in its personal foreign money.
Foreign trade refers to all currencies aside from the home foreign money of a given country. For instance, India’s home foreign money is Indian rupee and all different currencies like US greenback, British pound, Kuwaiti Dinar, etc. are Foreign Exchange. For instance, if an American company exports items to India, it would really like to get hold of the price in Dollars.

As a result, Indian importers will should convert Indian rupees into American Dollars to make the price. It creates the trouble of changing one foreign money into different and solving the charge at which the 2 currencies are to be exchanged. In fact, it’s miles the trouble of willpower of forex charge.
Foreign trade charge refers back to the charge at which one foreign money is exchanged for the alternative. It represents the fee of 1 foreign money in phrases of some other foreign money. Foreign trade charge measures the quantity of devices of 1 foreign money required to trade with one unit of some other. If trade charge for kilos and greenbacks is: 1 pound = 2 greenback, then its method that greenbacks are had to have one pound. The trade charge can range from 12 months-to-12 months or maybe day-to-day. In a rustic, there are as many forex quotes as there are overseas currencies. Like many different expenses, trade charge is decided via way of means of forces of call for and deliver.

    • Question 1:
      Fill within side the Blanks:
      Indian importers will should ____________ Indian rupees into American Dollars to make the price.
      In a rustic, there are as many ____________ quotes as there are overseas currencies.
      Foreign trade charge measures the quantity of devices of 1 ________ to trade with one unit of some other.
      In case of a global price, foreign money of 1 country must be transformed into the foreign money of some other country due to the fact each country needs __________ in its personal foreign money.
      Foreign trade refers to all currencies aside from the home foreign money of a given country.
      The trade charge can range from ____________ or maybe day-to-day.
      Like many different expenses, trade charge is decided via way of means of forces of _____________.
      If an American company exports items to India, it would really like to get hold of the price ________.
    • Question 2:
      State whether or not True or False.
      India’s home foreign money is Indian rupee and all different currencies like US greenback, British pound, Kuwaiti Dinar, etc. are Foreign Exchange.
      If trade charge for kilos and greenbacks is: 1 pound = 2 greenback, then its method that one greenback is wanted to have kilos.
      It creates the trouble of changing one foreign money into different and solving the charge at which the 2 currencies are to be exchanged.
      Foreign trade refers to all currencies aside from the home foreign money of a given country.
      Foreign trade charge refers back to the charge at which one foreign money is produced in a rustic.
    • Question 3:
      What issues forex faces?
    • Question 4:
      How global bills are made?
    • Question 5:
      Give an instance of changing the foreign money.
    • Answer 1:
      (a) convert;
      (b) forex;
      (c) foreign money required;
      (d) the price;
      (e) all currencies;
      (f) 12 months-to-12 months;
      (g) call for and deliver;
      (h) in Dollars
    • Answer 2:
      (a) True;
      (b) False;
      (c) True;
      (d) True;
      (e) False
    • Answer 3:
      It creates the trouble of changing one foreign money into different and solving the charge at which the 2 currencies are to be exchanged. In fact, it’s miles the trouble of willpower of forex charge.
    • Answer 4:
      All international locations have their personal currencies which might be with no trouble perfect inside their respective territories. Indian rupee in India, US greenback in America, pound in England, etc. However, foreign money of 1 country is normally now no longer generic in a few different countries. In case of a global price, foreign money of 1 country must be transformed into the foreign money of some other country due to the fact each country needs the price in its personal foreign money.
    • Answer 5:
      For instance, if an American company exports items to India, it would really like to get hold of the price in Dollars. As a result, Indian importers will should convert Indian rupees into American Dollars to make the price.

Class 12 Macroeconomics Chapter 6 Case Study 2

Currency depreciation refers to lower within side the price of home foreign money in phrases of overseas foreign money. It makes the home foreign money much less treasured and greater of its miles required to shop for the overseas foreign money. Some impact of depreciation of home foreign money are:
Increase in Exports: depreciation of home foreign money method a fall within side the fee of home foreign money in phrases of an overseas foreign money. Its method, with the identical quantity of greenbacks, greater items may be bought from India, that method, exports to USA will boom as they may come to be enormously cheaper.
Decrease in imports: depreciation will cause lower in imports as Indians will should pay greater home foreign money to import overseas items. It results in fall in import as overseas items turns into enormously pricey.

Increase in countrywide earnings: as exports will boom and imports will fall because of depreciation of home foreign money, internet exports will boom. It will boom the countrywide earnings, assuming no alternate in different things.
Currency appreciation refers to boom within side the price of home foreign money in phrases of overseas foreign money. The home foreign money will become greater treasured and much less of its miles required to shop for the overseas foreign money. Some impact of appreciation of home foreign money are:
Increase in imports: appreciation of home foreign money method an upward thrust within side the fee of home foreign money in phrases of an overseas foreign money. Now, 1 Rupee may be exchanged for greater greenbacks, its method, with identical quantity of cash, greater items may be bought from USA. It results in boom in imports from USA as American items turns into enormously cheaper.
Decrease in Exports: appreciation will cause lower in exports as one unit of overseas foreign money will now via way of means of much less of home items. It results in fall in exports as home items turns into enormously pricey for overseas nationals. three. Decrease in countrywide earnings – as exports will fall and imports will upward thrust because of appreciation of home foreign money, internet exports will lower. It will lessen the countrywide earnings, assuming no alternate in different things.

    • Question 1:
      What are the outcomes of depreciation of home foreign money?
    • Question 2:
      What are the outcomes of appreciation of home foreign money?
    • Question 3:
      Fill within side the blanks:
      (a) Currency depreciation refers to lower within side the price of __________ in phrases of overseas foreign money.
      (b) Depreciation will cause lower in imports as Indians will should _________ home foreign money to import overseas items.
      (c) As exports will boom and imports will fall because of __________ home foreign money, internet exports will boom.
      (d) Depreciation of home foreign money method a __________ of home foreign money in phrases of an overseas foreign money.
      (e) Appreciation of home foreign money method a __________ of home foreign money in phrases of an overseas foreign money.
      (f) As exports will boom and _________ will fall because of depreciation of home foreign money, internet exports will boom.
      (g) Appreciation will cause lower in exports as one unit of __________ will now via way of means of much less of home items.
    • Question 4:
      State whether or not True or False
      (a) Decrease in exports results in fall in exports as home items turns into enormously pricey for overseas nationals.
      (b) Increase in exports method, with the identical quantity of greenbacks, greater items may be bought from India, that method, exports to USA will boom as they may come to be enormously cheaper.
      (c) When exports will fall and imports will upward thrust because of appreciation of home foreign money, it’ll boom the countrywide earnings, assuming no alternate in different things.
      (d) Decrease of imports method fall in import as overseas items turns into enormously pricey.
      (e) As exports will fall and imports will upward thrust because of appreciation of home foreign money, internet exports will lower. It will lessen the countrywide earnings, assuming no alternate in different things.
    • Answer 1:
      Some impact of depreciation of home foreign money are:
      Increase in Exports: depreciation of home foreign money method a fall within side the fee of home foreign money in phrases of an overseas foreign money.
      Decrease in imports: depreciation will cause lower in imports as Indians will should pay greater home foreign money to import overseas items. three. Increase in countrywide earnings – as exports will boom and imports will fall because of depreciation of home foreign money, internet exports will boom.
    • Answer 2:
      Some impact of appreciation of home foreign money are:
      Increase in imports: appreciation of home foreign money method an upward thrust within side the fee of home foreign money in phrases of an overseas foreign money.
      Decrease in Exports: appreciation will cause lower in exports as one unit of overseas foreign money will now via way of means of much less of home items. three. Decrease in countrywide earnings – as exports will fall and imports will upward thrust because of appreciation of home foreign money, internet exports will lower.
    • Answer 3:
      (a) home foreign money;
      (b) pay greater;
      (c) depreciation;
      (d) fall within side the fee;
      (e) upward thrust within side the fee;
      (f) imports;
      (g) overseas foreign money
    • Answer 4:
      (a) True;
      (b) True;
      (c) False;
      (d) True;
      (e) True.

Class 12 Macroeconomics Chapter 6 Case Study 3

There are 3 fundamental forms of trade charge systems:
Fixed trade charge device
Flexible trade charge device
Managed floating charge device
Fixed trade charge device refers to a device wherein trade charge for the foreign money is constant via way of means of the authorities. The simple reason of adopting this device is to make certain balance in overseas alternate and capital movements. To obtain balance, authorities undertake to shop for overseas foreign money while the trade charge will become weaker and promote overseas foreign money while the charge of trade receives stronger. Under this device, every country continues price of its foreign money constant in phrases of a few ‘outside standards’.
Flexible trade charge device refers to a device wherein trade charge is decided via way of means of forces of call for and deliver of various currencies within side the forex marketplace. The price of foreign money is authorized to range freely in step with adjustments in call for and deliver of forex. Flexible trade charge is likewise called ‘floating trade charge’ or ‘unfastened trade charge’. The trade charge is decided via way of means of the marketplace, i.e., the interactions of lots of banks, companies and different Institutions in search of to shop for and promote foreign money for functions of creating transaction in forex.

Managed floating charge device refers to a device wherein forex charge is decided via way of means of marketplace forces and Central Bank impacts the trade charge via intervention within side the forex marketplace. It is a hybrid of constant trade charge and bendy trade charge device. In this device, Central Bank intervenes within side the forex marketplace to limit the fluctuations within side the trade charge inside positive limits. The goal is to hold trade charge near preferred the goal values. It is likewise called ‘grimy floating’. Dirty glide is a device wherein price of a rustic’s foreign money is authorized to ex-alternate with regards to others, however is managed all manipulated via way of means of Central Bank to hold it inside a specific range.

    • Question 1:
      What is ‘Dirty Floating’?
    • Question 2:
      Fill within side the blanks:
      (a) The simple reason of adopting ____________ device is to make certain balance in overseas alternate and capital movements.
      (b) To obtain balance, authorities undertake to shop for ______________ while the trade charge will become weaker and promote overseas foreign money while the charge of trade receives stronger.
      (c) _____________ is a hybrid of constant trade charge and bendy trade charge device.
      (d) The price of foreign money is authorized to range freely ___________ in call for and deliver of forex.
      (e) The interactions of lots of banks, companies and different Institutions in search of to _____________ foreign money for functions of creating transaction in forex.
    • Question 3:
      What is ‘Fixed Exchange Rate’ device?
    • Question 4:
      State whether or not True or False.
      (a) Flexible trade charge is likewise called ‘floating trade charge’ or ‘unfastened trade charge’.
      (b) In controlled floating charge device, Central Bank intervenes within side the forex marketplace to limiting the fluctuations within side the trade charge inside positive limits.
      (c) Managed floating charge device refers to a device wherein trade charge is decided via way of means of forces of call for and deliver of various currencies within side the forex marketplace.
      (d) Under constant trade charge device, every country continues price of its foreign money constant in phrases of a few ‘outside standards’.
      (e) Flexible trade charge device refers to a device wherein forex charge is decided via way of means of marketplace forces and Central Bank impacts the trade charge via intervention within side the forex marketplace.
      Question 5:
      What is ‘Flexible Exchange Rate’ device?
    • Answer 1:
      Dirty glide is a device wherein price of a rustic’s foreign money is authorized to ex-alternate with regards to others, however is managed all manipulated via way of means of Central Bank to hold it inside a specific range. It is likewise called ‘Dirty Floating’.
    • Answer 2:
      (a) constant trade charge;
      (b) overseas foreign money;
      (c) Managed floating charge device;
      (d) in step with adjustments;
      (e) purchase and promote
    • Answer 3:
      Fixed trade charge device refers to a device wherein trade charge for the foreign money is constant via way of means of the authorities. The simple reason of adopting this device is to make certain balance in overseas alternate and capital movements. To obtain balance, authorities undertake to shop for overseas foreign money while the trade charge will become weaker and promote overseas foreign money while the charge of trade receives stronger. Under this device, every country continues price of its foreign money constant in phrases of a few ‘outside standards’.
    • Answer 4:
      (a) True;
      (b) True;
      (c) False;
      (d) True;
      (e) False
    • Answer 5:
      Flexible trade charge device refers to a device wherein trade charge is decided via way of means of forces of call for and deliver of various currencies within side the forex marketplace. The price of foreign money is authorized to range freely in step with adjustments in call for and deliver of forex. Flexible trade charge is likewise called ‘floating trade charge’ or ‘unfastened trade charge’. The trade charge is decided via way of means of the marketplace, i.e., the interactions of lots of banks, companies and different Institutions in search of to shop for and promote foreign money for functions of creating transaction in forex.
Class 12 Macroeconomics Chapter 6 Case Study 4

Supply of forex will increase from any transaction that includes receipts of overseas foreign money. The delivery of forex comes from the ones individuals who get hold of it because of following reasons: Exports of products and offerings, overseas funding, remittances from overseas, speculation, loans from relaxation of the arena, presents and donations from overseas. The delivery of overseas foreign money rises within side the following conditions:
When fee of an overseas foreign money Rises, home items come to be enormously cheaper. It induces the overseas countries to boom their imports from the home country. As a result, deliver of overseas foreign money Rises. For instance, if fee of 1 US greenback rises from rupees 70 to rupees 74, then exports to USA will boom as Indian items turns into enormously cheaper. It will improve the delivery of US greenbacks.

When fee of an overseas foreign money Rises, deliver of overseas foreign money Rises as humans need to make profits from speculative activities. three. When fee of an overseas foreign money Rises, investments from the subsequent country into the home country additionally Rises because of upward thrust in buying energy of overseas foreign money within side the home country. four. When fee of an overseas foreign money Rises, tourism into the home country rises as visiting to the home country will become enormously cheaper. Like the fee of a commodity, bendy trade charge is decided via way of means of the interplay of the forces of call for and deliver. The equilibrium trade charge is decided at a stage wherein call for forex is identical to the delivery of forex.

    • Question 1:
      Fill within side the blanks:
      (a) When fee of an overseas foreign money Rises, _______ come to be enormously cheaper.
      (b) When fee of an overseas foreign money Rises, tourism into the ________ rises.
      (c) Supply of forex _______ from any transaction that includes receipts of overseas foreign money.
      (d) If fee of 1 US greenback rises from rupees 70 to rupees 74, then exports to USA will boom as _______ turns into enormously cheaper.
      (e) When fee of a _______ Rises, tourism into the home country rises.
    • Question 2:
      State whether or not True or False.
      (a) The delivery of forex comes from the individuals who get hold of it because of following reasons: Exports of products and offerings, overseas funding, remittances from overseas, speculation, loans from relaxation of the arena, presents and donations from overseas.
      (b) Like the fee of a commodity, bendy trade charge is decided via way of means of the interplay of the forces of call for and deliver.
      (c) The equilibrium trade charge is decided at a stage wherein call for forex is identical to the delivery of forex.
      (d) When fee of an overseas foreign money Rises, deliver of overseas foreign money Rises as humans need to make profits from speculative activities.
      (e) When fee of an overseas foreign money Rises, investments from the subsequent country into the home country additionally Rises because of upward thrust in buying energy of overseas foreign money within side the home country.
    • Question 3:
      When does the delivery of overseas foreign money rises?
    • Question 4:
      From wherein the delivery of forex comes?
    • Answer 1:
      (a) home items;
      (b) home country;
      (c) will increase;
      (d) Indian items;
      (e) overseas foreign money
    • Answer 2:
      (a) True;
      (b) True;
      (c) True;
      (d) False;
      (e) False
    • Answer 3:
      The delivery of overseas foreign money rises within side the following conditions
      When fee of an overseas foreign money Rises, home items come to be enormously cheaper. It induces the overseas country to boom their imports from the home country. As a result, deliver of overseas foreign money Rises. For instance, if fee of 1 US greenback rises from rupees 70 to rupees 74, then exports to USA will boom as Indian items turns into enormously cheaper. It will improve the delivery of US greenbacks.
      When fee of an overseas foreign money Rises, deliver of overseas foreign money Rises as humans need to make profits from speculative activities. three. When fee of an overseas foreign money Rises, investments from the subsequent country into the home country additionally Rises because of upward thrust in buying energy of overseas foreign money within side the home country. four. When fee of an overseas foreign money Rises, tourism into the home country rises as visiting to the home country will become enormously cheaper.
    • Answer 4:
      The delivery of forex comes from the ones individuals who get hold of it because of following reasons: Exports of products and offerings, overseas funding, remittances from overseas, speculation, loans from relaxation of the arena, presents and donations from overseas.
Class 12 Macroeconomics Chapter 6 Case Study 5

Foreign trade marketplace is the marketplace wherein overseas currencies are offered and offered. The shoppers and dealers encompass individuals, companies, forex brokers, business banks and the vital financial institution. Like another marketplace, forex marketplace is a device, now no longer a vicinity. The transactions on this marketplace aren’t showed to handiest one or overseas currencies. In fact, there are a huge quantity of overseas currencies which might be traded, transformed and exchanged within side the forex marketplace.
Foreign trade marketplace plays the subsequent 3 functions:
Transfer feature: it transfers buying energy among the international locations worried within side the transaction. This feature is accomplished via credit score contraptions like payments of forex, financial institution draught and telephonic transfers.
Credit feature: it gives credit score for overseas alternate. Bills of trade, with adulthood duration of three months, are normally used for global bills. Credit is needed for this era so one can allow the critical to take ownership of products, promote them and acquired cash to repay the bill.

Hedging feature
While exporters and importers input into a settlement to promote and purchase items on a few destinies date on the contemporary expenses and trade charge, is referred to as hedging. the reason of hedging is to keep away from losses that is probably precipitated because of trade charge versions within side the destiny.
Foreign trade marketplace is assessed on the premise of whether or not the forex transactions are spot or ahead. Accordingly, there are varieties of forex markets: Spot marketplace and Forward Market. Spot marketplace refers back to the marketplace wherein receipts and bills are made immediately. Generally, time of two enterprise days is allowed to settle the transaction. Spot marketplace is of each day nature and offers handiest in spot transaction of forex. The charge of trade, which prevails within side the spot marketplace, is named as Spot Exchange charge or contemporary charge of trade. Forward Market refers back to the marketplace wherein sale and buy of overseas foreign money is settled on a selected destiny date at a charge agreed upon today. The trade charge quoted in ahead transactions is called the ahead trade charge.

    • Question 1:
      What is Hedging feature?
    • Question 2:
      What is forex marketplace?
    • Question 3:
      Fill within side the blanks:
      (a) The trade charge quoted in ______ is called the ahead trade charge.
      (b) Spot marketplace refers back to the marketplace wherein receipts and _____ are made immediately.
      (c) There is a huge quantity of _______ which might be traded, transformed and exchanged within side the forex marketplace.
      (d) Credit is needed for this era so one can allow them _____ to take ownership of products, promote them and acquired cash to repay the bill.
      (e) The charge of trade, which prevails within side the ______, is named as Spot Exchange charge or contemporary charge of trade.
    • Question 4:
      State whether or not True or False.
      (a) Like another marketplace, forex marketplace is a device, now no longer a vicinity.
      (b) Bills of trade, with adulthood duration of three months, are normally used for global bills.
      (c) In spot marketplace, normally, time of two enterprise days is allowed to settle the transaction.
      (d) Forward Market refers back to the marketplace wherein sale and buy of overseas foreign money is settled on a selected contemporary date at a charge agreed upon.
      (e) The transactions in forex marketplace are showed to handiest one or overseas currencies.
    • Question 5:
      How the forex marketplace is assessed?
    • Answer 1:
      When exporters and importers input into a settlement to promote and purchase items on a few destinies date on the contemporary expenses and trade charge, is referred to as hedging.
    • Answer 2:
      Foreign trade marketplace is the marketplace wherein overseas currencies are offered and offered. The shoppers and dealers encompass individuals, companies, Forex brokers, business banks and the vital financial institution. Like another marketplace, Forex marketplace is a device, now no longer a vicinity.
    • Answer 3:
      (a) ahead transactions;
      (b) bills;
      (c) overseas currencies;
      (d) importer:
      (e) spot marketplace
    • Answer 4:
      (a) True;
      (b) True;
      (c) True;
      (d) False;
      (e) False
    • Answer 5:
      Foreign trade marketplace is assessed on the premise of whether or not the Forex transactions are spot or ahead. Accordingly, there are varieties of Forex markets: Spot marketplace and Forward Market.
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