NCERT Solutions for Class 5 EVS Chapter 14

NCERT Solutions for Class 5 EVS Chapter 14 When the Earth Shook all question answers with complete explanation updated for new academic session 2021-2022. All the sections of Class 5 EVS Chapter 14 is covered with the help of Extra Important questions.

These extra important questions are helpful for exams preparation and revision of the chapter.

NCERT Solutions for Class 5 EVS Chapter 14

Class 5 EVS Chapter 14 Question Answers Set 1

What is a natural disaster?

Natural disaster is a sudden natural event that causes a massive loss of life, property. It is thus a natural calamity often causing sudden, extensive and serious damage to life and property. Earthquakes, Tsunamis, Volcanic eruptions, Floods, Droughts, Cyclones, Landslides and Forest fires are forms of natural disasters.

What is an earthquake?

An earthquake is a sudden movement or a violent shaking of earth due to the movement of the tectonic plates in the earth’s crust which causes a great destruction. An earthquake is thus an intense shaking of Earth’s surface. The shaking is caused by movements in Earth’s outermost layer.

Define-Seismograph, Seismology.

i. Seismograph is an instrument used to measure and record the earthquake tremors or movements.
ii. Seismology is the scientific study of an earthquake.

How is the magnitude of an earthquake measured?

The Richter scale which is also called the Richter magnitude scale or Richter’s magnitude scale. It is a measure of the strength of earthquakes. It was the first scale developed by Charles Francis Richter in 1935. He called it the “magnitude scale “as it was used for measuring the magnitude or intensity of an earthquake.

What is Flood?

A flood is an overflow of a large amount of water beyond its normal limits. Flood is actually sudden flooding of water in low lying dry areas due to heavy rain. During rainy season many parts of India get flooded. Flood cause damage to roads, buildings and crops.

What is drought?

Drought is a prolonged dry period when there is no rainfall for several years which leads to drying of crops is called drought. This results in no food for the people which causes famine in which the people die of hunger.

Class 5 EVS Chapter 14 Question Answers Set 2

What is focus of an earthquake?

Focus is a place where an earthquake originates. The focus of an earthquake is the point where the rocks start to fracture. It is thus the origin of the earthquake.

What is the epicentre of the earthquake?

Epicentre is the centre point which is above the focus of an earthquake. It is the point on the Earth’s surface directly above the focus.

How is a flood caused?

The flood is caused due to-
• Heavy and continuous rainfall in a particular area as a result of which the water level in the river keeps rising. When the rivers are not able to hold excess water, the excess water flows over the river bank and floods the surrounding areas.
• Collapse of a wall of the dam
• rapid melting of the snow or a storm surge from a tropical cyclone or tsunami in coastal areas.

Why does an Earthquake Occurs?

Why does an Earthquake Occurs?
Ans. An earthquakes occurs when two large pieces of the earth’s crust suddenly slip. When this slip takes place, there is movement of massive energy through the earth in the form of waves, which we feel and call an earthquake.
Earthquakes are the deadliest of all the natural disasters. Strong earthquake can destroy entire city. Over 10,000 people die every year in earthquakes.
The place on the surface of the earth where the earthquake is strongest is called epicentre. Therefore, places close to epicentre suffer maximum damage.

Question:
What precautions should be kept in mind for an earthquake?
Answer:
As it is very difficult to exactly predict the earthquakes:

    • People living in earthquake-prone areas should build houses that can withstand earthquakes tremors.
    • During earthquake people should quickly leave their houses and move in an open place to remain safe.
    • If you are in a car, then pull over and stop. Set your parking brake.
    • If you are in bed, turn face down and cover your head and neck with a pillow.
    • If you are outdoors, stay outdoors away from buildings.
    • If you are inside, stay and do not run outside and avoid doorways.
    • Sit under a strong table if you cannot go out.
    • Do not use a lift rather move down swiftly through the stairs
    • Stay away from trees, electric wires, poles, signboards etc.




Class 5 EVS Chapter 14 Question Answers Set 3

How is a drought caused?

A drought is caused due to:
• low precipitation or rainfall over an extended period of time.
• Atmospheric conditions such as climate change,
• changes in ocean temperatures,
• changes in the jet stream, and
• changes in the local landscape are all factors that contribute to drought.
• Lesser growth of plants

Question:
What are the effects of a flood?
Answer:
The effects of a flood are as follows:
• loss of human life,
• property damage,
• destruction of crops, livestock loss and
• waterborne diseases, caused by stagnant water like cholera, typhoid etc.

What measures should be kept in mind during a flood?

The following measures should be kept in mind in regards to floods-
• Keep the first aid kit ready for any kind of emergency
• Keep food and clothes ready in a water proof bags
• Grow more and more trees to prevent water loss
• Build special dams to control the speed of water as well as excess water
• Keep stocks of food and water handy.

What are the effects of a drought?

The effects of a drought are as follows:
• Extreme scarcity of water and food which might result in a famine
• Loss of life
• Crops get effected as no water availability
• Hunger and starvation leading to death

Question:
What measures should be followed for a drought?
Answer:
The following measures should be followed in a situation of drought:
• We should develop rain water harvesting system to ensure that there is no shortage of water
• Grow more and more trees
• Avoid wastage of water
• Grow drought resistant crops like sorghum
• runoff collection using surface

Class 5 EVS Chapter 14 Question Answers Set 4

Give reason why one should go under a table or something strong or hard during an earthquake?

During an earthquake, there is every possibility of a collapse of a house. Moreover, it may also be difficult for us to run out of the building during an earthquake So, at that particular time we need to hide under something strong to avoid getting injured due to a collapse.

How do animals like dog help during and after an earthquake?

Animals like dogs have super sense of hearing which helps them to feel the vibrations of the shaking ground or sensing an earthquake. They can forewarn us about the disaster. They can use their super sense of smell in finding the people who are trapped under the debris sfter an earthquake or some other calamity.

When did the earthquake occur in Gujarat? What was its magnitude?

On 26th January, 2001 an earthquake occurred in Gujarat which had an intensity of 6.9 on the Richter Scale.

What is the role of various organizations during a disaster?

During a disaster, the government has a crucial role. It does the following things:
• The Indian Armed forces are trained to help in these difficult situations
• They drop the packets of food, clothes, water packers and medicines in the affected areas.
• The red cross society supplies urgent medical relief.
• NCC also helps the people affected at the disaster sites
• FAO, ILO, WHO and NGOS also help at the time of a disaster.
• Search and rescue operations are also conducted to find out the people trapped in the debris.



Question:
How can we deal with a disaster?
Answer:
We can deal with a disaster in the following ways:
• Keep the important phone numbers handy
• Keep a bag that contains a torch, a pair of clothes and non- perishable food items always ready.
• Being aware of the kind of disaster your area is prone to
• When a disaster strikes pick up your emergency bag, switch off all the electric points and move out of the house as early as possible
• Avoid using elevators or lifts
• Encourage people to face the situation bravely
• Encourage people around you to help by cash and in kind

Class 5 EVS Chapter 14 Question Answers Set 5

What is a Cyclone?

Cyclones are strong and rotating winds that are common in coastal areas and are associated with high tides and floods. Cyclones last from several hours to more than 2 weeks over open waters. It is thus a storm or system of winds that rotates about a centre of low atmospheric pressure and that moves forward at a speed of 20 to 30 miles (30 to 50 kilometres) an hour and often brings heavy rain.

What is a Landslide?

Landslides are common in hilly region. They occur when slippery mosses of rock, earth and debris slide down the mountain slope due to heavy rain fall or earthquake. It is a large amount of earth, rock, and other material that moves down a steep slope and happens when a layer of earth or rocks separates from the layer below it. The force of gravity pulls the loose layer downward. A landslide needs a steep slope to get its start.

What is a volcano?

A Volcano is a hill with a vent which reaches down to the hot molten rock below the surface of the earth. During a volcanic eruption the molten rock is forced up the vent which comes out of the top as Lava. The Lava flows out very fast and burns everything that comes in its way. It causes great damage to property and life. A volcano is thus an opening in the earth’s crust through which lava, volcanic ash, and gases escape.

What are active, dormant and extinct volcanoes?

A volcano can be active, dormant and extinct.
An active volcano is a volcano which has a history of recent eruptions; they are likely to erupt again. Inside an active volcano is a chamber in which molten rock, called magma, collects.
A dormant volcano is the one which has not erupted for a very long time but may erupt at a future time.
An extinct volcano is the one which is not expected to erupt in the future.

What is a forest fire?

Sometimes a fire breaks out in a forest due to lightning or due to dry leaves and twigs rubbing against one another. This is called forest fire. Forest fires are large uncontrolled fires that take place in the forest. Some of the severe fires occur in the forest because there is so much fuel (trees) to burn. Forest fires are a type of wildfire.

Describe the composition of the earth.

The outer surface and inner core of the Earth are totally different in their nature and structure.
The structure of the Earth’s interior is divided into three layers namely the crust, the mantle and the core.
• Crust: Crust is the outer layer of the Earth, where we live. It is the solid and rigid layer of the Earth.
• Mantle: The interior part beneath the crust is called mantle, which is about 2,900 km thick. In the upper part of the mantle, the rock remains solid, whereas in the lower part of the mantle, rocks are in molten form. This molten rock inside the Earth is called ‘magma’.
• Core: The core is the innermost and hottest layer of the Earth which lies below the mantle. It is composed mainly of Nickel (Ni) and Iron (Fe). Hence it is called NIFE. The core is divided into Solid inner core and Liquid outer core.

How have seismic waves help scientists?

Scientists have been able to understand the Earth’s interior by studying the seismic waves. The Seismic waves travel at different speeds when they pass through different types of material. So, by studying seismograms, scientists are able to learn a lot about Earth’s internal structure.

What advice do engineers and architects suggest people while building houses in the earthquake affected areas?

Engineers and architects suggest people to build new houses with special designs which will save their houses from earthquake. These houses will be safer if there is an earthquake again as these houses are built with special designs suggested by the engineers.

Question:
How should people work to make their life normal again after a disaster?
Answer:
After a disaster people can do the following things to make their life normal again:
• They should help each other to clean their houses and household goods.
• They should make arrangements of clean drinking water to avoid any water borne diseases.
• They should work together to clear the streets and roads
• Make sure everyone takes their go bag and your lock box of essential and financial documents.
• Attend to physical injuries and emotional distress.
• If you have a home standing, but there is damage, secure your property. …
• Take photos of the damage.



Class 5 EVS Chapter 14 Question Answers Set 6

Which organizations work for providing relief to disaster effected areas?

The following organizations provide help and relief in disaster effected areas:
• American Red Cross – Volunteers help provide disaster relief, including clean water, hot meals, and shelter to families and communities.
• National Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster (NVOAD) assists communities affected by disasters.
• International Relief Teams.
• International Rescue Committee.
• UNICEF

What is a famine?

Famine is a widespread condition in which most of the people of a country or region are not able to get adequate food supplies. Famines result in malnutrition, starvation, disease, and high death rates. It is the scarcity of food, caused by factors like war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.

What is a mock drill?

A Mock Drill is a practice session conducted to ensure the effectiveness of the plan before it is executed, so that the organization is prepared to face the disaster if happens. It is the testing of the effectiveness of Disaster Management Plan.
A plan has to be prepared and then a mock drill is conducted which may last only a few minutes. It is a participating method to practice the safety-related measures and evacuation of a building during an emergency situation.

What is the objective of a mock drill? Ans.

The objective of mock drill is to analyse the emergency preparedness plan of the organization or the country and evaluate the standard operating procedure, so that concerned persons could deliver their duties successfully while keeping in an understanding of life and property.

What should a person do in case of an earthquake?

In case of an earthquake a person should not go outside during an earthquake as we could get severely injured, or even buried, by falling debris (an air-conditioner, a balcony, a wall). If you live on the ground floor, then immediately move out from your house and stay in open grounds If we are near an outer wall of the building, we should move towards the interior, but no more than a few steps. Then follow the “drop, cover, hold on” method.
Whenever an earthquake strikes, make sure you stay in bed instead of running around. Try covering your head with a pillow to protect yourself. If you are running downstairs make
sure you use stairs and not lifts.

What is drop cover and hold during the earthquake?

Drop, cover and hold during an earthquake means-
• DROP where ever you are, on your hands and knees. This position will protect you from getting knocked down and also allow you to stay low and crawl to shelter if nearby.
• If you take cover under a durable and strong piece of furniture.
• HOLD on to it and be prepared to move with it. Hold the position until the ground stops shaking and it is safe to move.

Question:
How can the scientist, architects, the military officials, local people and N.G. Os help the flood affected people?
Answer:
These people will help the affected people in the following ways:
• Scientist: – They find out which area have more chances of earthquake and thus alert the people.
• Architect: – They make special designs of the houses that can be less affected by earthquake.
• Military officials: – They help the affected people by rescuing them and taking them to the medical camps.
• Local people: – They collect food, clothes, funds, blankets, for the affected people. They also help in building houses, rescuing and taking the people to the medical camps.
• N.G. Os: They provide safe drinking water, food packets and medicines and also make refugee camps.

Question:
What does the government do to help the earthquake affected people?
Answer:
The government helps the affected people in the following ways:
i. The government set up the refugee camps.
ii. raises money to rebuild the houses.
iii. arranges all the basic needs of the affected people.
iv. announces the compensation for the affected people.
v. gives free medical aids.
vi. repairs the railway, roadways, schools and other public places.



Class 5 EVS Chapter 14 Question Answers Set 7

Write a short note on ‘Gujarat’s earthquake.

On 26th January 2001, an earthquake struck the Kutch and Bhuj area of Gujarat nearly at 10:30 a.m. Many hundred people were killed and thousands were injured. Army jawans were called for help. Nearly 150 buildings were collapsed. There was really a great destruction all around. The government did its best to relocate the people.

What are man-made disasters? Give examples?

Man-made disasters are dangerous unsafe events that are caused by activities of human beings. Some examples of man-made disasters are chemical spills, explosions, chemical or biological attacks, nuclear blast, train accidents, plane crashes, or groundwater contamination.

What is Tsunami?

Tsunami is a long and high sea wave caused by an undersea earthquake which results in a huge oceanic wave. This wave moves towards the land and leads to a major damage as well as disturbance there.

Question:
Explain the various magnitude of earthquakes and their effects.
Answer:
The different categories and magnitudes of an earthquake are as follows:

DescriptionMagnitudeeffects
Great8 or aboveTotally destroys communities, lives near the epicentre
Major7-7.9Serious damages are caused
Strong 6.1-6.9Major damage in populated areas
Moderate5.5-6.0Slight damages to the buildings
light2.5-5.4Often felt but causes minor damages
Minor2.4 or lessUsually not felt but can cause minor damage.

Why do you think the people in the village in Kutch Rajasthan from the chapter 14 class 5th EVS were frightened that they didn’t sleep at night?

After the devastation that the shake created people were injured and hurt and some of them also lost their loved ones. The danger of another such earthquake made them more frightened and kept them awake.

What could be done to help the people as per story 14 of EVS NCERT class 5th if such an incident takes place?

I think reading news or radio broadcast is an important part to check if there is another anticipation of such shocks. Moreover, in the chapter, it has been shown that people distributed the food to the people to help them get the energy because that is the right thing to do and one cannot just enter the debris to help it take away another fall of debris could make the situation worse.

Do you think there could be ways to change the way we receive the warning to prevent such devastation in the future as per the story given in chapter 14 of class 5th EVS?

Chapter 14 of EVS share one of the major catastrophes that took place in 2001 and after that entire world take the note to make such advanced technologies that could actually save millions of lives and help reduce the loss of lives and we can always expect more advanced technology that can help to reduce the devastation.