Class 8 English Grammar Chapter 11 Conjunctions. A conjunction is a word which connects words, phrases, clauses, and sentences and at the same time brings about relationship between the elements thus joined. For example, Amit and Rohit are good friends, (words). Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people, (phrases). He said to me that he was my friend, (clauses). Mr. Raju is a teacher and his wife is a doctor, (sentences). There are two kinds of Conjunctions, Co-ordinate Conjunctions and Sub-ordinate Conjunctions.
Standard 8 English Grammar Chapter 11 Conjunctions
|Class: 8||English Grammar|
Kinds of Conjunctions
1. Co-ordinate Conjunctions
2. Sub-ordinate Conjunctions
Co-ordinate conjunctions join words, phrases, clauses, and sentences of equal rank or
grammatical units of the same kind. For, not, nor, but, or, yet and so are coordinating conjunctions.
Kinds of Co-ordinate Conjunctions
(a) Cumulative or Copulative Conjunctions
(b) Adversative Conjunctions
(c) Alternative or Distinctive Conjunctions
(d) Illative or Illustrative Conjunctions
Cumulative or Copulative Conjunctions
Cumulative Conjunctions add one statement or a fact to another Such Conjunctions are:
1. Tagore was not only a poet but also a good painter.
2. Both you and he are at fault.
Adversative Conjunctions show contrast between two statements when joined. They are: however, whereas, while, only, still, but, yet. nevertheless, etc.
1. He ran fast. He. however, could not catch the bus.
2. I was reading while she was dozing.
Alternative or Distinctive Con junctions
Alternative Conjunctions express a choice between statements. Such Conjunctions as,
1. Either you or your brother has broken the Slate.
2. Neither Ram nor his brothers are present.
Illative or Illustrative Conjunctions
Illative Conjunction shows that one fact or statement is inferred and proved from the other. They are: therefore, then, so, for, consequently etc.
He is honest, therefore, he is respected.
Sub-ordinate conjunctions help to connect Subordinate Clause or Dependent clause to the main clause. Subordinate Conjunctions denote: (i) Time (ii) Cause or Reason (iii) Purpose
(iv) Result (v) Condition (vi) Place (vii) Manner or Extent (viii) Comparison (ix) Concession or Contrast. They are of nine kinds.
1. Do not go until I get ready.
2. You cannot pass unless you work hard.
Relative Adverbs and Interrogative Adverbs are used as Conjunctions when they join two sentences. They refer back to some antecedents as,
1. Please tell me why you are sad.
2. This is the house where I’ live.
Correlative Conjunctions are used in pairs related to each other. They him two sentence that or equal in status. These conjunctions him words as well as sentence. They are:- either-or, neither-nor, both-and, not only-but also, whether-or, as-as, so- as though, although-yet, rather-than, such-as, so-that, such-that, hardly, scarcely- when/before etc.
The use of correlative conjunctions
Either-or, Neither-nor: If there are two subjects, care must be taken that the verb agrees with the second subject. They are followed by the same part of speech as,
1. Either you or Aman has stolen my pen.
2. Neither he nor I am going to Delhi.
Compound conjunctions are conjunctions that are formed by more than one word.
|Wait here till I return.||Do not go until I return.|
|We stayed there till||Until the centre closed.|
|She tried again and again till||until she passed the examination.|
Use of Conjunction in Combining the Sentences
|She bought a pen and a book.||She was a good woman but a bad queen.|
|He can read and write French.||Riay failed but Seema passed.|
So-that, Such-that, Such-as: “So-that” and “Such-that” are used to express result or consequence. “So” is followed by an adjective while “such” is followed by a noun.
|He ran so fast that he was soon out of breath.||I had such a heavy breakfast that I had to forego lunch.||We like such servants as are honest.|
|She is so poor that she cannot pay her school fee.||He is such a boy that everybody likes him.||Such boys as work hard succeed in life.|