Class 8 English Grammar Chapter 4 The Noun

Class 8 English Grammar Chapter 4 The Noun and Kinds of Noun. We know that a Noun is the name of a person, place or a thing. A noun is further divided in four kinds as Proper Noun, Common Noun, Collective Noun, Material Noun and Abstract Noun.

A Collective Noun takes a singular verb. For example, Our army is strong. The class is in the room.

Standard 8 English Grammar Chapter 4 The Noun

Class: 8English Grammar
Chapter: 4Noun and kinds of Noun

Common Noun

A Common Noun is the name that can be given to every person, animal, place or thing of the same class or kind as,
Persons: Man, woman, boy, girl, teacher, doctor, peon etc.
Animals: Bull, cow, horse, cat, lion, mouse, elephant etc.
Places: School, temple, church, farm, park, zoo, roof, street etc.
Things: Pen, book, bag, bat, needle, table, spoon etc.




Collective Noun

A Collective Noun is the name of a group or collection of persons, animals or things of the same kind taken together and described as one whole; as, team, mob, jury, committee, family, party, group, regiment, dozen, score, heap, bundle, packet, library, fleet, herd, band, bouquet etc.
Note: A Collective Noun takes a singular verb, as:
1. Our army is strong.
2. The class is in the room.

Material Noun

A Material Noun is the name of the matter or substance of which things are made as, Gold, silver, cotton, wood, iron, steel, milk, honey, water, butter, oil, ice, bread, wheat, sugar, ink, paper, glass, china, leather, nylon, cloth, clay, salt etc.
1. Our clothes are made of cotton.
2. Iron is a very useful metal.
3. This ring is made of gold.

Abstract Noun

An Abstract Noun is the name of some feeling, quality, action or state, (or) An Abstract Noun is the name of something which we can neither see nor touch but which we can only feel or think of as, Study this list of some Abstract Nouns

FeelingsActionsStates
Joylaughterboyhood
Grief angersleep
sorrowlovesickness
fear revenge death




Formation of Nouns from Verbs
Verb Noun
Accept Acceptance
Add Addition
Achieve Achievement
Admit Admission
Absent Absence
Admire Admirations
Formation of Nouns from Adjectives
Adjective Noun
Able Ability
Absent Absence
Active Activity
Accurate Accuracy
Angry Anger
Artful Art




Synonyms: (Words which mean the same)
WordSynonym
Anger Rage
Abandon Relinquish
Aid Help
Adept Expert
Apology Pardon
ArrogancePride
Antonyms: (Words which mean the opposite)
Wordantonym
AlwaysNever
AgreeDisagree
AloneTogether
AgedYoung
AllowDisallow
AdvantageDisadvantage
The Number

There are two numbers in English:
1. Singular Number
2. Plural Number

    1. Singular Number: A Noun or Pronoun that denotes one person or thing is said to be in the Singular Number as, Boy, Pen, Child, Tree, Book, etc.
    2. Plural Number: A Noun or Pronoun that denotes more than one persons or things is said to be in the Plural Number; as, Boys, Pens, Children, Trees, Books etc.
    3. Rules for Change of Number
      Rule (1): The Plural of a Noun is generally formed by adding ‘s’ to the Singular form as,




SingularPlural
AppleApples
ActActs
Actor Actors
Article Articles

Rule (2): Singular Nouns ending in s, ss, sh, ch, x or z become plural by adding “es” to them, as,

Singular Plural
AddressAddresses
AssAsses
Arch Arches
Ash Ashes

Important Notes on the Change of Number:
1. Some Nouns have the same form both in the singular and in the plural as,



Singular Plural
I have a sheep.Ram has ten sheep.
I saw a deer in the field. I saw many deer in the field.
I caught a fish yesterday. Fish live in water.

2. The following Nouns are always used as plural:
The cattle are grazing in the field.
3. Some Nouns are plural in appearance but singular in use:
Mathematics is an interesting subject.
Genders of Noun: Genders tell us whether a noun belongs to the male sex, female sex or to neither of the two:
1. Masculine Gender
2. Feminine Gender
3. Common Gender
4. Neuter Gender
1. Men, boys and male animals are Masculine.
2. Women, girls and female animals are Feminine.
3. A noun which has the same form for masculine and feminine is of the Common Gender (Baby, Child)
4 A lifeless thing is of the Neuter Gender. (Book, Chair)
Case of The Nouns: There are four cases in English:
1. Nominative Case
2. Objective or Accusative Case
3. Dative Case
4. Possessive Case
1. Nominative: Dogs bark.
2. Objective Case or Accusative Case: We serve our country.
3. Dative Case: I bought Sita a doll.
4. Possessive or Genitive Case: Manish’s father is a doctor.

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