NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 18

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NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 18

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Body Fluids and Circulation: Solutions




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NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 18 Body Fluids and Circulation
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Important Notes on Body Fluids and Circulation

  • Cardiac output: The amount of blood pumped by heart per minute is called cardiac or heart output. The value of cardiac output of a normal person is about 72 × 70 = 5040 mL or about 5L per minutes.
  • Electrocardiograph (ECG): The machine used to record electrocardiogram.
  • Electrocardiogram ECG: The graphic record of the electric current produced by the excitation of the cardiac muscles. It is composed of a ‘P’ wave, ‘QRS’ wave. (Complex) and ‘T’ wave.



Blood
  • A special connective tissue that circulates in principal vascular system of man and other vertebrates consisting of fluid matrix, plasma and formed elements.
  • Blood Pressure: The resistance offered by the lumen of the artery to the flow of Blood.
    Cardiac Cycle: The rhythmic contraction and dilation of different parts of heart in one beat.
  • Hypertension: The condition when blood pressure is higher than normal (120/80 mmHg)
  • Systole: Contraction of heart muscles.
  • Diastole: Relaxation of heart muscles.
Plasma
  • The liquid part of blood or lymph which is straw coloured, viscous fluid and contains (only lymbphocytes) about 90-92% of water and 6-8% proteins.
  • Lymph: A clear yellowish, slightly alkaline, coagulable fluid, containing white blood cells in a liquid resembling blood plasma.
  • Serum: Blood plasma from which fibrinogen and other clotting factors have been removed.
  • Heart Beat: The rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the heart, which includes one systole (contraction phase) and one diastole (relaxation phase) of the heart. Heart beat count of healthy person is 72 times per minute.



Lymph
  • The colourless mobile fluid connective tissue drains into the lymphatic capillaries from the intercellular spaces. It is formed by squeezing of blood through capillaries, within tissues. Its ¯ow is unidirectional i.e., from tissues to heart.
    Composition:
  • It is composed of fluid matrix, plasma, white blood corpuscles or leucocytes.
  • Functions:
    1. It drains excess tissue from extra cellular spaces back into the blood,
    2. It contain lymphocytes and antibodies.
    3. It transport digested fats.