NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 21

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 21 Neural Control and Coordination to Study online or download in PDF form free. Download NCERT Solutions for boards like UP, MP, CBSE, etc. who are following NCERT Books as course books.


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Neural Control and Coordination: Solutions




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NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 21 Neural Control and Coordination
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Important Notes on Neural Control & Coordination

Human brain
  • Human brain is the major portion of central neural system. Which is well protected by the skull.
  • The brain is surrounded by three cranial meninges
    1. Duramater – outer layer
    2. Arachnoid – middle layer
    3. Piamter – Inner layer-remain in contact with brain



Functions of parts of brain
  • Cerebrum: Centre of intelligence, memory and imagination, reasoning, judgement, expression of will power.
  • Thalamus: Acts as relay centre to receive and transmit general sensation of pain, touch and temperature.
  • Hypothalamus: Centre for regulation of body temperature, urge for eating and drinking.
  • Mid-brain: Responsible to coordinate visual reflexes and auditory reflexes.
  • Cerebellum: Maintains posture and equilibrium of the body as well as coordinates and regulates voluntary movement.
Transmission of Impulses at Synapse
  1. At electrical synapses: Here the membrane of pre and post-syneptic neuron are in very close proximity. Electric current can ¯ow directly from one neuron into other across these synapses, like impulse conduction along a single axon.
  2. At chemical synapses: Here the membrane of pre and post-syneptic neuron are separated by fluid filled space called synaptic cleft. Neurotransmitter are involved here.



Other Important Terms
  • Blind spot: A spot on retina which is free from rods and cones and lack the ability for vision.
  • Cerebrospinal fluid: An alkaline fluid present in between inner two layer of meninges, surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
  • Cerebellum: A part of hind brain that controls the balance and posture of the body.
  • Cochlea: A spirally coiled part of internal ear which is responsible for hearing.
  • Corpus callosum: A curved thick bundle of nerve fibres that joins two cerebral hemisphere.
  • Pons: Thick bundles of fibres on the ventral side of brain below cerebellum.
  • Foramen magnum: A big aperture in the skull posteriorly through which spinal cord emerges out.
  • Spinal cord: A tubular structure connected with medulla oblongata of brain and situated in the neural canal of the vertebral column, covered by meninges.
  • Synaptic cleft: A narrow fluid filled space which separates two membranes of the two neurons at the synapse.