NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 2 Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Resources (भूमि, मृदा, जल, प्राकृतिक वनस्पति और वन्य जीवन संसाधन) in English Medium to Study online as well as NCERT Solutions for other subjects also.
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 2
Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wildlife
8 Geography Chapter 2 Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Resources
Important Terms on Chapter 2
- LAND: Land is among the most important natural resources. It covers only about thirty per cent of the total area of the earth’s surface and all parts of this small percentage are not habitable.
- LAND USE: Land is used for different purposes such as agriculture, forestry, mining, building houses, roads and setting up of industries. This is commonly termed as Land use. Land can also be divided on the basis of private land and community land. Private land is owned by individuals whereas, community land is owned by the community for common uses like collection of fodder, fruits, nuts or medicinal herbs. These community lands are also called common property resources.
- SOIL: Soil is made up of organic matter, minerals and weathered rocks found on the earth. This happens through the process of weathering. The right mix of minerals and organic matter make the soil fertile. The thin layer of grainy substance covering the surface of the earth is called soil. It is closely linked to land. Landforms determine the type of soil. The major factors of soil formation are the nature of the parent rock and climatic factors. Other factors are the topography, role of organic material and time taken for the composition of soil formation. All these differ from place to place.
Methods of soil conservation
- Mulching: The bare ground between plants is covered with a layer of organic matter like straw. It helps to retain soil moisture.
- Rock dam: Rocks are piled up to slow down the flow of water. This prevents gullies and further soil loss.
Contour barriers: Stones, grass, soil are used to build barriers along contours. Trenches are made in front of the barriers to collect water.
- Contour ploughing: Ploughing parallel to the contours of a hill slope to form a natural barrier for water to flow down the slope.
- Terrace farming: These are made on the steep slopes so that flat surfaces are available to grow crops. They can reduce surface run-off and soil erosion.
- Intercropping: Different crops are grown in alternate rows and are sown at different times to protect the soil from rain wash.
- Shelter belts: In the coastal and dry regions, rows of trees are planted to check the wind movement to protect soil cover.