NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 2 From Trade to Territory (व्यापार से साम्राज्य तक) to Study online or download in PDF form free. Download NCERT Solutions for Maths, Science and Hindi also.
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 2
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From Trade to Territory: Question Answers
8 History Chapter 2 From Trade to Territory Solutions
Important Terms on From Trade to Territory
- Mercantile: A business enterprise that makes profit primarily through trade, buying goods cheap and selling them at higher prices.
- Farman: A royal edict, a royal order.
Puppet: Literally, a toy that you can move with strings. The term is used disapprovingly to refer to a person who is controlled by someone else.
- Mufti: A jurist of the Muslim community responsible for expounding the law that the qazi would administer.
- Impeachment: A trial by the House of Lords in England for charges of misconduct brought against a person in the House of Commons.
More to Know
After Aurangzeb there was no powerful Mughal ruler, but Mughal emperors continued to be symbolically important. In fact, when a massive rebellion against British rule broke out in 1857, Bahadur Shah Zafar, the Mughal emperor at the time, was seen as the natural leader. Once the revolt was put down by the company, Bahadur Shah Zafar was forced to leave the kingdom, and his sons were shot in cold blood.
East India Company begins trade in Bengal
- The first English factory was set up on the banks of the river Hugli in 1651. This was known at that time as “factors”, operated. The factory had a warehouse where goods for export were stored and it had offices where Company officials sat. As trade expanded, the Company persuaded merchants and traders to come and settle near the factory.
- By 1696 it began building a fort around the settlement. Two years later it bribed Mughal officials into giving the Company zamindari rights over three villages. One of these was Kalikata, which later grew into the city of Calcutta or Kolkata as it is known today. It also persuaded the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb to issue a farman granting the Company the right to trade duty free.
How trade led to battles
After the death of Aurangzeb, the Bengal nawabs asserted their power and autonomy, as other regional powers were doing at that time. Murshid Quli Khan was followed by Alivardi Khan and then Sirajuddaulah as the Nawab of Bengal. They refused to grant the Company concessions, demanded large tributes for the Company’s right to trade, denied it any right to mint coins and stopped it from extending its fortifications. It was refusing to pay taxes, writing disrespectful letters, and trying to humiliate the nawab and his officials. The Company on its part declared that the unjust demands of the local officials were ruining the trade of the Company and trade could flourish only if the duties were removed. It was also convinced that to expand trade it had to enlarge its settlements, buy up villages, and rebuild its forts.