NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 4 Tribals, Dikus and the Vision of a Golden Age (आदिवासी, दिकू और एक स्वर्ण युग के कल्पना) to Study online or download in PDF form free. Downloads of NCERT Books all subjects in Hindi and English Medium.
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 4
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Tribals, Dikus and the Vision of a Golden Age: Question Answers
8 History Chapter 4 Tribals, Dikus & Vision of a Golden Age
Important Notes on Tribals, Dikus and the Vision of a Golden Age
Who was Birsa?
- Birsa was born in a family of Mundas – a tribal group that lived in Chottanagpur. In 1895, he himself declared that God had appointed him to save his people from trouble, free them from the slavery of dikus (outsiders). Soon thousands began following Birsa, believing that he was bhagwan (God) and had come to solve all their problems. His followers included other tribals of the region – Santhals and Oraons. Their familiar ways of life seemed to be disappearing, their livelihoods were under threat and their religion appeared to be in danger.
- Most tribes had customs and rituals that were very different from those laid down by Brahmans. These societies also did not have the sharp social divisions that were characteristic of caste societies. All those who belonged to the same tribe thought of themselves as sharing common ties of kinship.
What is JHUM Cultivation?
Some of them practised jhum cultivation, which is shifting cultivation. The cultivators cut the treetops to allow sunlight to reach the ground and burnt the vegetation on the land to clear it for cultivation. They spread the ash from the firing, which contained potash, to fertilise the soil. They used the axe to cut trees and the hoe to scratch the soil in order to prepare it for cultivation. They broadcast the seeds, that is, scattered the seeds on the field instead of ploughing the land and sowing the seeds. Once the crop was ready and harvested, they moved to another field. A field that had been cultivated once was left fallow for several years.
Who were Khonds?
The Khonds were such a community living in the forests of Orissa. They regularly went out on collective hunts and then divided the meat amongst themselves. They ate fruits and roots collected from the forest and cooked food with the oil they extracted from the seeds of the sal and mahua. They used many forest shrubs and herbs for medicinal purposes, and sold forest produce in the local markets. The local weavers and leather workers turned to the Khonds when they needed supplies of kusum and palash flowers to colour their clothes and leather.