NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 1 Important Questions of Human Geography Nature and Scope with answers and explanation for session 2023-24. Get all the practice questions of 12th Geography Part 1 Fundamentals of Human Geography extra question answers for exams.
Class 12 Geography Chapter 1 Important Questions
What is neo-determinism?
Neo-determinism reflects a middle path between two ideas of environmental determinism and possibilism. Neo-determinism is also called “Stop and go determinism” because it believes that if human activities (pollution) cause long-term damage to the environment then such activities should be stopped otherwise humans can do everything that the environment allows us to do.
How geography is a physical as well as social science?
Geography is combination of Science and Social science. If you consider branches of Geography then there are two main branches: Physical Geography and Human Geography.
Physical geography deals with earth sciences. It aims to understand Atmosphere, flora and fauna, environment, oceanography etc. This branch of Geography is considered as Science.
Human geography deals with human societies, the patterns and processes that shape the human society. It encompasses social, cultural, economic, political, geographical aspects of particular region. This branch is considered as social science.
Explain the concept of environmental determinism with examples.
Environmental determinism is the belief that the environment, most notably its physical factors such as landforms and climate, determines the patterns of human culture and societal development. Environmental determinists believe that ecological, climatic, and geographical factors alone are responsible for human cultures and individual decisions. Environmental determinism, also known as climatic determinism or geographical determinism relies on an approach which implies that individuals are bound to their environmental settings, especially climate. These forms of physical geographies determine human behaviour, the existence of different forms of societies etc.
The main argument of environmental determinism states that an area’s physical characteristics like climate have a substantial impact on the psychological outlook of its inhabitants. These different outlooks then spread throughout a population and help define the overall behaviour and culture of a society.
For example, it was said that areas in the tropics were less developed than higher latitudes because the continuously warm weather there made it easier to survive and thus, people living there did not work as hard to ensure their survival. Another example of environmental determinism would be the theory that island nations have unique cultural traits solely because of their isolation from continental societies.
Explain the concept of possibilism with suitable examples.
Possibilism is the philosophy introduced by Fabvre, to explain man and environment relationship in a different way of determinism, taking man as an active agent in environment; which asserts that natural environment provides options, the number of which increases as the knowledge and technology of a culture group. According to Fabvre, ‘there are no necessities, but everywhere possibilities’. The possibilism saw in the physical environment a series of possibilities for human development, but they argued that the actual ways in which development took place were related to the culture of the people concerned, except perhaps in religion of extremes like desert, tundra, equatorial and high mountains.
The possibilism emphasize that it is impossible to explain the difference in human society and the history of that society with reference to the influence of environment; and they hold that man himself brings his influence to bear on that environment and changes it. Example: Man has brought changes to the environment by increasing its capacity to meet his largely increased needs and demands. The most visible and common examples in this regard are; industrial revolution, agricultural advancement, technological revolution.
What is the difference between possibilism and determinism?
When man dominates nature, it is called possibilism. When nature dominates man, it is called determinism. Due to intelligence, man makes changes in the natural environment. Determinism asserts that development of human history, culture, society, lifestyle, etc., are shaped by their physical environment. There are limitations to changes made by man in nature. There are no limitations on impact of physical environment on human activities.