NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 3 US Hegemony in World Politics updated for new academic session 2022-2023. All the solutions for Class 12 Political Science Part 1 Contemporary World Politics chapter 3 are useful for CBSE and other board who are following NCERT Books.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 3

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 3 MCQ

Q1

Which among the following statements about hegemony is incorrect?

[A]. The word implies the leadership or predominance of one State.
[B]. It was used to denote the predominance of Athens in ancient Greece.
[C]. The country having hegemonic position will possess unchallenged military power.
[D]. Hegemonic position is fixed. Once a hegemony, always a hegemony.
Q2

Which among the following statements is wrong about the contemporary world order?

[A]. There is an absence of world government, which could regulate the State’s behavior.
[B]. The US is the predominant player in world affairs.
[C]. States are using force against one another.
[D]. States, which violate international law, are severely punished by the UN.
Q3

Which among the following statements is wrong with regard to Operation Iraqi Freedom?

[A]. More than forty countries joined in the US led coalition of the willing to invade Iraq.
[B]. The reason given for invading Iraq was to prevent it from developing weapons of mass destruction.
[C]. The action was taken with the prior approval of the UN.
[D]. The US-led coalition did not face major resistance from Iraqi forces.

Give an example each of the three kinds of hegemony that are dealt within the chapter. Do not cite examples that are in the chapter.

Hegemony as Hard Power: was an artist who was living in Nigeria and was planning to join the Art and Craft Academy to gain expertise in her artistic aptitude. But she lost her leg in 2003 missile attack done by the US. When she overcame it, she made efforts to achieve and fulfill her dreams if the foreign armies leave her country.

Hegemony as Structural Power: Tabish is very good in studies in the countryside of Middle East Asia and is planning to study subjects from Arts stream to accommodate himself in different aspects as per requirements. But his parents want him to be a master in computers so that he becomes a Software Engineer due to a flair for job opportunities in the same.

Hegemony as Soft Power: Mayank is a young and energetic man of Melbourne, an immigrant from Russia. His father gets upset when he puts on black shirt with white jeans while he goes to church. He justifies that black color signifies protest for freedom and white signifies freedom in a peaceful manner.

Mention three ways in which US dominance since the Cold War is different from its position as a superpower during the Cold War.

1. During Cold War, the US found it tough to win over the Soviet Union as hard power due to retaliating capacity of the Soviet Union and to protest world from large scale devastation. But in the areas of structural and soft power, the US dominated.
2. During Cold War years, the Soviet Union provided an alternating model of socialist economy to make the most of welfare of states. Still the world economy throughout the Cold War years adapted capitalist economy under the US.
3. In the area of soft power, the US became victorious. As the example of blue jeans shows that the US could engineer a generational gap even in Soviet Society on culture basis.

What are the constraints on American hegemony today? Which one of these do you expect to get more important in the future?

There are three constraints on American Power which were actually not in operation in the years following 9/11. Hence the US could set up its hegemony. In recent times all these constraints are gradually beginning to operate in the following ways:

1. The US bears institutional architecture in the American State itself. It refers to the division of powers between the three branches of government where American military’s executive branch can place noteworthy brakes upon the unreserved and immoderate exercise.

2. The second constraint on American hegemony comes from open nature of American society. A deep disbelief towards the purposes and methods of government in America is a huge constraint on US military action overseas.

3. The third constraint on US hegemony is the possession of NATO to restrain the exercise of the US hegemony today. The US has a great interest in keeping the alliance of democracies to keep the market economies alive and it may be possible in NATO to moderate the exercise of the US hegemony through their own liberal policies and fulfill their own ends.

Read the three extracts in the chapter from LokSabha debate on the Indo-US deal. Develop any one of these into a full speech defending a certain position on Indo-US relations.

The following speech has been developed based on the excerpts from LokSabha debate as presented by Major General (Retired) B.C. Khanduri of BJP:
Sir, I would respectfully draw the attention of august house towards the US hegemony in today’s scenario. But we should not ignore the fact that India might be next waiting in the wings to perform as a superpower to maintain its own identity. Moreover, hegemony cannot stand forever due to its weaknesses. Therefore, we are supposed to have good and harmonious relations with that of the US for mutual promotion of trade and technology. But India should not compromise from the same on the cost of its own security and identity.
Hence, India should work in a diplomatic manner while it thinks to go hand-in-hand the US in such a manner that India could extract best benefits from the US hegemony and find out mutual options for it.
Thanks.

If big and resourceful states cannot resist the US hegemony, it is unrealistic to expect much smaller and weaker non-state actors to offer any resistance. Examine this proposition and give your opinion.

This proposition believes that only big and resourceful states could challenge the US hegemony. If we think intensely these are thoughts and pens of writers, expressions of artists, media and intellectuals who have no boundaries. Hegemony is itself to be criticized and resisted in the form of non-government organizations (NGOs), social movements and public opinion. Hence, non-state actors may challenge the US hegemony also in their own way.

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 3 US Hegemony in World Politics
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 3
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 3 in English Medium