NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 4 Alternative Centres of Power with complete explanation for new session 2022-2023. We have updated all the answers with extra questions of Class 12 Political Science Part 1 Contemporary World Politics chapter 4. Students can use these solutions as a guide to write their own answers.
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 4
Class 12 Political Science Chapter 4 MCQ
If we arrange the following in chronological order, which is the last event
The ASEAN Way
Which of the following nations adopted an ‘open door’ policy?
What are the objectives of establishing regional organizations?
The regional organizations are established with the following objectives:
- To make regional development at the same level to the fast growing global economy.
- To speed up the economic growth through social progress and cultural development.
- To uphold regional peace and stability based on the rule of law and the principles of United Nations Charter.
How does the geographical proximity influence the formation of regional organizations?
The geographical proximity influences the formation of regional organizations because:
- It is influenced by some historical enmities and weaknesses.
- The similar interests can come together.
- Even the fruitful areas of regional economy are the result of geographical proximity.
What are the components of the ASEAN Vision 2020?
The components of ASEAN Vision 2020 can be summed up as follows:
- An outward looking role in the international community.
- To promote negotiations over conflicts in the region.
- To intervene to end the conflicts i.e. Cambodian conflict, East Timor Crisis, annual discussion on East Asian Cooperation through meetings.
Name the pillars aid objectives of ASEAN community.
The ASEAN community established the following three pillars:
1. The ASEAN Security Community.
2. The ASEAN Economic Community.
3. The ASEAN Socio-cultural Community.
The objectives of ASEAN community are as follows:
- To ensure that the Territorial disputes should not shoot up into armed confrontations.
- To speed up economic growth through social progress and cultural development.
- To encourage regional peace and stability based on the rule of law and the principles of the United Nations Charter.
- To set up dispute settlement mechanism to resolve economic disputes.
- To build Free Trade Areas for investments, labour and services.
In what ways does the present Chinese economy differ from its command economy?
The present Chinese economy has adopted the ‘open door policy’ to generate higher productivity by investments of capital and technology. It is different from its command economy in the following manner:
- It broke the stagnancy of command economy.
- Command economy lagged behind in the industrial production but the Chinese economy improved it by privatization of agriculture and industry.
- The present Chinese economy recognized new trading laws and created Special Economic Zones leading to higher rise in foreign trade. During Command economy the international trade was minimum and per capita income was also very low.
How did the European countries resolve their Post-Second World War problem? Briefly outline the attempts that led to the formation of the European Union.
After the end of Second World War in 1945, the European States tackled the ruin of their economies and the devastation of assumptions and structures on which Europe had been found. European countries resolved their Post Second World War problems in the following manner:
- Under the ‘Marshall Plan’ the USA gave financial help to renew the European economy.
- The US also shaped a new collective security structure under NATO.
- Under the ‘Marshall Plan’ the organization for European Economic Cooperation was made in 1948 to give cooperation on trade and economic issues among the Western European States.
- European Union was founded in 1992 for a universal foreign and security policy, cooperation on justice and home affairs and formation of a single currency. It evolved from an economic union to political one over time.
The attempts that led to the formation of European Union are:
- The Council of Europe was established in 1949 for establishing political cooperation.
- The development of economic integration of European Capitalist countries led to the formation of European Economic Community in 1957.
- These processes gained a political dimension with the creation of European Parliament.
- The collapse of Soviet bloc put Europe on a fast track and resulted in the establishment of European Union in 1992.
What makes the European Union a highly influential regional organization?
The European Union has an economic, political diplomacy and military influence as a regional organization in the following manner:
- It has three times larger share in world trade than the US.
- Its currency Euro, can be a threat to the dominance of the US dollar.
- The EU functions as a central bloc in the World Trade Organization (WTO).
Political and Diplomatic Influences:
1. Two members of the EU, that is, Britain and France have permanent seats in the Security Council and can easily influence the UN policies.
2. The EU also has many non-permanent members of the UNSC.
3. The European Union plays a prominent role in diplomacy and negotiations except them military force i.e. the EU’s dialogue with China on human rights and environmental degradation is noteworthy.
- The EU’s combined armed forces are the second largest in the world.
- Its total expenditure on military is second to the US.
- Its two important members, Britain and France also face the nuclear ascends of 550 nuclear warheads.
- The EU is world’s second most significant source of space and communications technology.
The emerging economies of China and India have great potential to challenge the unipolar world. Do you agree with the statement? Substantiate your arguments.
The Indo-China relations experiences are tactically organized as the rising economic powers in global politics and thus play a major role in Asian economy after the end of Cold War. It can be justified on the following grounds:
1. The new economic policies of India and China have broken down their economy from stagnancy.
2. The formation of special economic zones has led to an exceptional rise in the foreign trade.
3. China has become the main destination for foreign direct investment anywhere in the world.
Hence, it has huge reserves for foreign exchange to allow it to make big investment in other countries. At the global level also, India and China have adopted similar policies in World Trade Organization to intensify integration with the world economy to challenge the unipolar world.
The peace and prosperity of countries lay in the establishment and strengthening of regional economic organizations. Justify this statement.
This statement represents the ASEAN Regional Forum and the European Union, where ASEAN Regional Forum is based on the belief of not escalating the territorial disputes into armed confrontation:
- The ASEAN is swiftly growing as a regional organization with the Vision 2020 which includes an outward looking role in international community and encourages negotiations over conflicts in the region.
- ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) is also maintaining harmonization of security and foreign policy.
- The EU has been getting funds on the ground of common foreign and security policy, cooperation on justice and home affairs.
- The European Union has also given its support and cooperation while acquiring new members especially from Soviet bloc.
Identify the contentious issues between China and India. How could these be resolved for greater cooperation? Give your suggestions.
The relations with China experience friendly gestures from India as India has signed the popular ‘Panchsheel’ to develop Indo-China relations in 1954 and promoted China’s membership to the United Nations. Still, after 1957, various contentious issues arose in Indo-China relations:
- In 1962, a military conflict over the border dispute of MacMohan Line resulted on uncalled-for claim by China which now lies in Arunachal Pradesh and Aksai Chin region of Ladakh.
- Differences also arose from Chinese takeover of Tibet in 1950 which was protested by India against China.
- After Panchsheel, there was an attack by China on India in 1962, which was an attempt to occupy larger territories of India and humiliated India.
- China’s assistance to Pakistan in its nuclear programmes has also created differences between both the countries.
- China’s military relations with Bangladesh and Myanmar were also hostile towards Indian interests.
All the above mentioned differences/ disputes could be resolved for greater cooperation:
- Both should put in more efforts to revitalize the harmonious attitude between themselves.
- Both should move hand-in-hand to fight against terrorism, nuclear race and economic disparities.
- Both should develop understanding and respect for each other.
- Both should sign agreements on cultural exchange and cooperation in science and technology.