Class 8 English Grammar Chapter 16 Direct and Indirect Speech

Class 8 English Grammar Chapter 16 Direct and Indirect Speech. When we use the actual words of the speaker, we use Direct Speech but when we report what he said in our own words, we use Indirect Speech.

The actual words of the speaker are called Reported Speech and the verb introducing the Reported Speech is called the Reporting Verb. What a person says can be written in direct or indirect speech whereas the mode of narration which we use to report others’ thoughts and speech is known as indirect or reported speech.

Standard 8 English Grammar Chapter 16 Direct and Indirect Speech

Class: 8English Grammar
Chapter: 16Direct and Indirect Speech

Direct Speech

    • The Reported Speech is put within Inverted Commas . (“ ”)
    • The First word of the Reported Speech begins with a capital Letter.
    • The Reported Speech is separated by a comma (,) from the Reporting Verb.




Indirect Speech

    • Inverted Commas (“ ”) are not used in Reported Speech. It is generally introduced by the Conjunction if., that, what, why, etc.
    • The comma separating the Reporting Verb from the Reported Speech is removed.
    • The Tense of the Reporting Verb is never changed.
    • The Question Mark (?) and the Mark of Exclamation (!) are not used.
    • The Interrogative, the Imperative and the Exclamatory sentences are put as statements.

Change the Reporting Verb

Kind of SentencesDirectIndirect
Assertivesay, says,said, said to
Imperativesaid, said toasked, advised, ordered, requested etc.
Exclamatorysaid, said toexcaliamed with joy/sorrow etc.
Interrogativesaid, said toasked, enquired, demanded of
Optativesaid, said towished/prayed




Change of the Tense

While changing Direct Speech into indirect Speech, the rule of Sequence of Tenses is followed. If the Reporting Verb is in the Present or Future Tense, the tense of the verb in the Reported Speech is not changed at all.

DirectIndirect
You say, “She is a nurse.”You say that she is a nurse.
I say, “Mohan is a good boy.”I say that Mohan is a good boy.
I say to Sham, “Ram is a student”.I tell Sham that Ram is a student.
He says to me, “The peon rings the bell.”He tells me that the peon rings the bell.
I shall say to him, “She will go to school.”I shall tell him that she will go to school.
I shall say, “Rita is a doctor.”I shall say that Rita is a doctor.

If the Reporting Verb is in the Past Tense, the Tense of the Reported Speech will change.

Direct SpeechIndirect Speech
He said, “Reena combs her hair.”He said that Reena combed her hair.
She said, “He is going to school.”She said that he was going to school.
I said, “I am taking tea.”I said that I was taking tea.
You said, “They are laughing.”You said that they were laughing.
He said, “They were laughing.”He said that they had been laughing.



Exception

If the Reported Speech expresses some Universal Truth, Factual Truth, Habitual Fact, Custom, Proverb, Natural Fact, Historical Fact and Scientific Fact, the tense of the verb in the Reported Speech is not changed into the Past, but remains exactly.

DirectIndirect
Mother said, “The dogs bark at the strangers.”Mother said that the dogs bark at (Habits) the strangers.
He said, “The Hindus burn their dead.”He said that the Hindus burn their dead.
He said, “Sea water tastes saltish.”He said that sea water tastes saltish.
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