NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 3
Mineral and Power Resources: Question Answers
8 Geography Chapter 3 Mineral and Power Resources
Important Terms on Mineral and Power Resources
A naturally occurring substance that has a definite chemical composition is a mineral. Minerals are not evenly distributed over space. Some minerals are found in areas which are not easily accessible such as the Arctic Ocean bed and Antarctica. Minerals are formed in different types of geological environments, under varying conditions. They can be identified on the basis of their physical properties such as colour, density, hardness and chemical property such as solubility. They are created by natural processes without any human interference.
- The process of taking out minerals from rocks buried under the earth’s surface is called mining. Minerals that lie at shallow depths are taken out by removing the surface layer; this is known as open-cast mining.
Deep bores, called shafts, have to be made to reach mineral deposits that lie at great depths. This is called shaft mining.
- Petroleum and natural gas occur far below the earth’s surface. Deep wells are bored to take them out, this is called drilling.
- Minerals that lie near the surface are simply dug out, by the process known as quarrying.
Distribution of Mineral in India
- Bauxite: Major bauxite producing areas are Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
- Iron: India has deposits of high grade iron ore. The mineral is found mainly in Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Goa, Maharashtra and Karnataka.
- Manganese: India’s manganese deposits lie in Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
- Limestone: Major limestone producing states in India are Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu.
- Mica: Mica deposits mainly occur in Jharkhand, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan. India is the largest producer and exporter of mica in the world.
- Copper: It is mainly produced in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
- Gold: Kolar in Karnataka has deposits of gold in India. These mines are among the deepest in the world which makes mining of this ore a very expensive process.
- Salt: It is obtained from seas, lakes and rocks. India is one of the world’s leading producers and exporters of salt.