In highly organized plants, the transport system is sophisticated and essential for distributing water, nutrients, and other substances throughout the plant. This system consists of two primary types of vascular tissues:


Function: The xylem is responsible for transporting water and dissolved minerals from the roots to the rest of the plant. This includes upward transport from the roots to the leaves, stems, and flowers.


Tracheids and Vessel Elements: These are the water-conducting cells in the xylem. Tracheids are long, thin cells that are found in all vascular plants, while vessel elements, which are shorter and wider, are found in most angiosperms (flowering plants) and a few other plant groups.
Xylem Fibers: These provide structural support.
Xylem Parenchyma: These cells are involved in the storage and lateral transport of water and nutrients within the xylem.


Function: The phloem transports organic nutrients, particularly sugar (sucrose), from the leaves to other parts of the plant. This process is known as translocation and can move substances in any direction, depending on the plant’s needs.


Sieve Tube Elements: These are the main conducting cells in the phloem, forming long tubes through which nutrients flow.
Companion Cells: These cells are closely associated with sieve tube elements and play a crucial role in loading and unloading sugars into and out of the sieve tubes.
Phloem Fibers: These provide structural support.
Phloem Parenchyma: These cells are involved in the storage and lateral transport of nutrients within the phloem.

Other parts of the plant transport system

Roots: Roots absorb water and minerals from the soil and transport them to the xylem.
Leaves: Leaves are the primary sites of photosynthesis and produce the sugars that are transported by the phloem.
Stems: Stems support the leaves and flowers and contain the vascular tissues (xylem and phloem) that connect the roots and leaves.

This transport system allows plants to move water, nutrients, and sugars to where they are needed, supporting growth, development, and reproduction. The efficiency and effectiveness of this system are crucial for the survival of the plant, especially in large and complex plants.

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List of Questions of Class 10 Science Chapter 5

Why is diffusion insufficient to meet the oxygen requirements of multicellular organisms like humans?
What criteria do we use to decide whether something is alive?
What are outside raw materials used for by an organism?
What processes would you consider essential for maintaining life?
What are the differences between autotrophic nutrition and heterotrophic nutrition?
Where do plants get each of the raw materials required for photosynthesis?
What is the role of the acid in our stomach?
What is the function of digestive enzymes?
How is the small intestine designed to absorb digested food?
What advantage over an aquatic organism does a terrestrial organism have with regard to obtaining oxygen for respiration?
What are the different ways in which glucose is oxidised to provide energy in various organisms?
How is oxygen and carbon dioxide transported in human beings?
How are the lungs designed in human beings to maximise the area for exchange of gases?
What are the components of the transport system in human beings?
Why is it necessary to separate oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in mammals and birds?
What are the components of the transport system in highly organised plants?
How are water and minerals transported in plants?
How is food transported in plants?
Describe the structure and functioning of nephrons.
What are the methods used by plants to get rid of excretory products?
How is the amount of urine produced regulated?
How are fats digested in our bodies? Where does this process take place?
What is the role of saliva in the digestion of food?
What are the necessary conditions for autotrophic nutrition and what are its byproducts?
What are the differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration?
How are the alveoli designed to maximise the exchange of gases?
What would be the consequences of a deficiency of haemoglobin in our bodies?
Describe double circulation of blood in human beings. Why is it necessary?
What are the differences between the transport of materials in xylem and phloem?
Compare the functioning of alveoli in the lungs and nephrons in the kidneys with respect to their structure and functioning.

Last Edited: November 16, 2023