The transport system in human beings, also known as the circulatory systemThe circulatory system is a complex network that transports blood, nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and hormones throughout the body. It consists of the heart, blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries), and blood. This system is crucial for maintaining homeostasis, delivering essential substances to cells, and removing waste products., is made up of several key components that work together to move blood, nutrients, gases, and waste products throughout the body. These components include:


The heart is a muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body. It has four chambers: two atria (upper chambers) and two ventricles (lower chambers).
The right side of the heart pumps deoxygenated bloodDeoxygenated blood is blood that has delivered its oxygen to the body’s cells and picked up carbon dioxide, a waste product of cellular metabolism. It appears darker than oxygen-rich blood and is transported back to the lungs via the veins and the right side of the heart for reoxygenation. to the lungs, where it picks up oxygen and releases carbon dioxide. The left side of the heart receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it to the rest of the body.

Blood Vessels

Arteries: These are large vessels that carry blood away from the heart. The largest artery, the aorta, branches out into smaller arteries, which in turn branch into even smaller arterioles throughout the body.

Veins: Veins carry blood back to the heart. Smaller veins, called venules, collect blood from capillaries, and these venules merge into larger veins.

Capillaries: These are tiny blood vessels where the exchange of gases, nutrients, and waste products occurs between the blood and the cells of the body. Capillaries connect the smallest arteries (arterioles) with the smallest veins (venules).


Blood is the fluid that circulates through the circulatory system. It consists of red blood cells (which carry oxygen), white blood cells (which fight infection), platelets (which help blood clot), and plasma (the liquid part of blood that carries nutrients, hormones, and waste products).

Lymphatic System

While not always included in a basic description of the circulatory system, the lymphatic system is important for maintaining fluid balance and for immune function. It includes lymph vessels, lymph nodes, and lymph, a fluid that carries immune cells and other substances.


Valves in the heart and veins ensure that blood flows in the correct direction. In the heart, valves prevent the backflow of blood between the atria and ventricles. In veins, valves prevent the backflow of blood as it returns to the heart.

These components work in a coordinated way to ensure that blood circulates efficiently throughout the body, delivering oxygen and nutrients to cells and removing waste products. The circulatory system also plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis, regulating body temperature, and supporting the immune system.

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List of Questions of Class 10 Science Chapter 5

Why is diffusion insufficient to meet the oxygen requirements of multicellular organisms like humans?
What criteria do we use to decide whether something is alive?
What are outside raw materials used for by an organism?
What processes would you consider essential for maintaining life?
What are the differences between autotrophic nutrition and heterotrophic nutrition?
Where do plants get each of the raw materials required for photosynthesis?
What is the role of the acid in our stomach?
What is the function of digestive enzymes?
How is the small intestine designed to absorb digested food?
What advantage over an aquatic organism does a terrestrial organism have with regard to obtaining oxygen for respiration?
What are the different ways in which glucose is oxidised to provide energy in various organisms?
How is oxygen and carbon dioxide transported in human beings?
How are the lungs designed in human beings to maximise the area for exchange of gases?
What are the components of the transport system in human beings?
Why is it necessary to separate oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in mammals and birds?
What are the components of the transport system in highly organised plants?
How are water and minerals transported in plants?
How is food transported in plants?
Describe the structure and functioning of nephrons.
What are the methods used by plants to get rid of excretory products?
How is the amount of urine produced regulated?
How are fats digested in our bodies? Where does this process take place?
What is the role of saliva in the digestion of food?
What are the necessary conditions for autotrophic nutrition and what are its byproducts?
What are the differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration?
How are the alveoli designed to maximise the exchange of gases?
What would be the consequences of a deficiency of haemoglobin in our bodies?
Describe double circulation of blood in human beings. Why is it necessary?
What are the differences between the transport of materials in xylem and phloem?
Compare the functioning of alveoli in the lungs and nephrons in the kidneys with respect to their structure and functioning.

Last Edited: November 16, 2023