NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 14 Environmental Chemistry updated for new academic session 2022-2023 CBSE and State Board. Get here Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 14 MCQ, Intext Questions, Exercises and Important Extra Questions in PDF and Videos.

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ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY

Environmental studies deal with the sum of all social, economical, biological, physical and chemical interrelations with our surroundings. Environmental chemistry deals with the study of the origin, transport, reactions, effects and fates of chemical species in the environment. Let us discuss some important aspects of environmental chemistry.

Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 14 MCQ

Q1

Which of the following gases is not a greenhouse gas?

[A]. CO
[B]. O₃
[C]. CH₄
[D]. H₂O vapour
Q2

Photochemical smog occurs in warm, dry and sunny climate. One of the following is not amongst the components of photochemical smog, identify it.

[A]. NO₂
[B]. O₃
[C]. SO₂
[D]. Unsaturated hydrocarbon
Q3

Which of the following statements is not true about classical smog?

[A]. Its main components are produced by the action of sunlight on emissions of automobiles and factories.
[B]. Produced in cold and humid climate.
[C]. It contains compounds of reducing nature.
[D]. It contains smoke, fog and sulphur dioxide.
Q4

Biochemical Oxygen Demand, (BOD) is a measure of organic material present in water. BOD value less than 5 ppm indicates a water sample to be

[A]. rich in dissolved oxygen.
[B]. poor in dissolved oxygen.
[C]. highly polluted.
[D]. not suitable for aquatic life.

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

Environmental pollution is the effect of undesirable changes in our surroundings that have harmful effects on plants, animals and human beings. A substance, which causes pollution, is known as pollutant. Pollutants can be solid, liquid or gaseous substances present in greater concentration than in natural abundance and are produced due to human activities or due to natural happenings.

ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION

Atmospheric pollution is generally studied as tropospheric and stratospheric pollution. The presence of ozone in the stratosphere prevents about 99.5 per cent of the sun’s harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiations from reaching the earth’s surface and thereby protecting humans and other animals from its effect.

Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 14 MCQ with Answer

Q5

Which of the following statements is wrong?

[A]. Ozone is not responsible for greenhouse effect.
[B]. Ozone can oxidize Sulphur dioxide present in the atmosphere to Sulphur trioxide.
[C]. Ozone hole is thinning of ozone layer present in stratosphere.
[D]. Ozone is produced in upper stratosphere by the action of UV rays on oxygen.
Q6

Sewage containing organic waste should not be disposed in water bodies because it causes major water pollution. Fishes in such a polluted water die because of

[A]. Large number of mosquitoes.
[B]. Increase in the amount of dissolved oxygen.
[C]. Decrease in the amount of dissolved oxygen in water.
[D]. Clogging of gills by mud.
Q7

Which of the following statements about photochemical smog is wrong?

[A]. It has high concentration of oxidising agents.
[B]. It has low concentration of oxidising agent.
[C]. It can be controlled by controlling the release of NO2, hydrocarbons, ozone etc.
[D]. Plantation of some plants like pinus helps in controlling photochemical smog.
Q8

The gaseous envelope around the earth is known as atmosphere. The lowest layer of this is extended upto 10 km from sea level, this layer is

[A]. Stratosphere
[B]. Troposphere
[C]. Mesosphere
[D]. Hydrosphere

Tropospheric Pollution

Tropospheric pollution occurs due to the presence of undesirable solid or gaseous particles in the air. The following are the major gaseous and particulate pollutants present in the troposphere.
Gaseous air pollutants:
These are oxides of sulphur, nitrogen and carbon, hydrogen sulphide, hydrocarbons, ozone and other oxidants.

Particulate pollutants: These are dust, mist, fumes, smoke, smog etc.
Gaseous air pollutants
(a) Oxides of Sulphur (SO₂)
(b) Oxides of Nitrogen (NO, NO₂)
(c) Hydrocarbons (formed by incomplete combustion of fuel used in automobiles.)
(d) Oxides of Carbon (CO, CO₂)

Global Warming and Greenhouse Effect

About 75 % of the solar energy reaching the earth is absorbed by the earth’s surface, which increases its temperature. The rest of the heat radiates back to the atmosphere. Some of the heat is trapped by gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, chlorofluorocarbon compounds (CFCs) and water vapour in the atmosphere. Thus, they add to the heating of the atmosphere. This causes global warming. Carbon dioxide is the major contributor to global warming. Besides carbon dioxide, other greenhouse gases are methane, water vapour, nitrous oxide, CFCs and ozone.

Particulate Pollutants

Particulates pollutants are the minute solid particles or liquid droplets in air. These are present in vehicle emissions, smoke particles from fires, dust particles and ash from industries. Particulates in the atmosphere may be viable or non-viable. The viable particulates e.g., bacteria, fungi, moulds, algae etc., are minute living organisms that are dispersed in the atmosphere. Human beings are allergic to some of the fungi found in air. They can also cause plant diseases.

Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 14 Important Extra Questions

Greenhouse effect leads to global warming. Which substances are responsible for greenhouse effect?

Trapping of heat by greenhouse gases, namely carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone and chlorofluorocarbons.

What are biodegradable and non-biodegradable pollutants?

Biodegradable – which are decomposed by bacteria. Non-biodegradable – which cannot be decomposed by bacteria.

What is the importance of measuring BOD of a water body?

BOD is the measure of level of pollution caused by organic biodegradable material. Low value of BOD indicates that water contains less organic matter.

Stratospheric Pollution

The upper stratosphere consists of considerable amount of ozone (O3), which protects us from the harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiations (l 255 nm) coming from the sun. These radiations cause skin cancer (melanoma) in humans. Therefore, it is important to maintain the ozone shield.

The Ozone Hole

In 1980s atmospheric scientists working in Antarctica reported about depletion of ozone layer commonly known as ozone hole over the South Pole. It was found that a unique set of conditions was responsible for the ozone hole.

Effects of Depletion of the Ozone Layer
With the depletion of ozone layer, more UV radiation filters into troposphere. UV radiations lead to ageing of skin, cataract, sunburn, skin cancer, killing of many phytoplanktons, damage to fish productivity etc.

WATER POLLUTION

Water is essential for life. Without water there would be no life. We usually take water as granted for its purity, but we must ensure the quality of water. Pollution of water originates from human activities. Through different paths, pollution reaches surface or ground water. Easily identified source or place of pollution is called as point source.

Causes of Water Pollution

(A) Pathogens:
The most serious water pollutants are the disease causing agents called pathogens. Pathogens include bacteria and other organisms that enter water from domestic sewage and animal excreta. Human excreta contain bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis which cause gastrointestinal diseases.

(B) Organic wastes:
The other major water pollutant is organic matter such as leaves, grass, trash etc. (C) Chemical Pollutants: As we know that water is an excellent solvent, water soluble inorganic chemicals that include heavy metals such as cadmium, mercury, nickel etc. constitute an important class of pollutants. All these metals are dangerous to humans because our body cannot excrete them.

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