NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Political Science Chapter 2 Freedom in English and Hindi Medium updated for CBSE and State board students following the latest curriculum 2023-24. Students of Class 11 can get all the answers of Political Theory book chapter 2 in simple format to prepare exams.
What is meant by freedom? Is there a relationship between freedom for the individual and freedom for the nation?
Freedom means to do all those things which do not harm others and, are necessary for a person’s own development. There is a close relationship between the freedom for individual and for the nation because if a nation is free, every individual of it, will be free to increase their creativities and capabilities. So, Freedom is:
- A situation that limits the constraints on individuals and allows them to expand their ability and reach their potential.
- Allows the full development of an individual’s creativity, sensibility, capabilities and the autonomy to make choices.
- Permits the individuals to exercise their power of reason and judgment
Yes, there is a relationship between freedom for the individual and freedom for the nation:
- A free nation is the one which allows the full development of individual’s talent and ability by making less restriction on individuals.
- An individual is said to be free only if s/he resides in a free nation.
- A nation is said to be free if it has freedom as one of its principles and only if it has provided this to its people.
- In this way, individual freedom and national freedom are closely linked to each other.
What is the difference between the negative and positive conception of liberty?
|Negative liberty||Positive liberty|
|It defines and defends the area of an individual’s life where no external authority is allowed to interfere.||It defines the area of society where an individual is free with some constraints made by the society and the government.|
|It is not concerned with the conditions of the society.||It is concerned with the enabling conditions of the society.|
|It is concerned with the idea of ‘freedom from’.||It is concerned with the idea of ‘freedom to’.|
|This area comes into personal domain of an individual.||This area comes into social domain of an individual.|
|More negative liberty leads to more freedom.||More positive liberty checks excess of freedom to an individual, which could be an obstacle for the social stability.|
What is meant by social constraints? Are constraints of any kind necessary for enjoying freedom?
Social Constraints are the external controls made by the society upon the individual.
The government is the part of society, hence it is assigned with the task to put limitation on the freedom of the citizens. Constraints on freedom are also a result of social inequality. Social constraints can include formal practices such as government regulations or informal norms including cultural preferences. Recently, material related to social constraints has been implemented in the course to strengthen the incorporation of social constraints into the design and implementation process.
Yes, Constraints are necessary for enjoying the freedom:
1. Constraints are necessary to to develop respect for the views of others.
2. It is necessary to create an equal society.
3. Absence of constraints would lead to imposition of beliefs on others and give rise to conflicts. In order to show that freedom is measurable, one must show that the different kinds of constraint on freedom (physical impossibility, threats, difficulty) can be combined so as to provide overall freedom judgments.
Example: In Indian constitution, right to practice religious affair is a Fundamental Right and government would not intervene into, but if the practice restricts other people from following their beliefs then the government would interfere into it.
What is the role of the state in upholding freedom of its citizens?
The state upholds the freedom of its citizens by providing certain rights to them. The state maintains ‘justifiable constraints’ or reasonable restrictions on people so that they cannot harm others and their freedom. It provides positive liberty to its citizens to enable them to expand their ability and talent.
- Freedom of citizens of the state decides the scope of freedom, i.e. freedom of citizens depends on the will of rulers in a monarchy, democratic state grants fundamental right to the citizens.
- A state is controlled by the government because, whatever the government does, it affect, the freedom of citizens and if any conflict becomes violent, it hinders the day-to-day life of state.
- If state is unable to manage army and police, it disrupts the law and order of the country.
- A welfare state always initiates to protect the freedom of backward people along its all citizens.
What is meant by freedom of expression? What in your view would be a reasonable restriction on this freedom? Give examples.
Freedom of expression means the freedom to express one’s views through speech, writing, etc. It is considered to belong to the minimum area of ‘non-interference’, that is, negative liberty. According to the provisions of the Indian Constitution, this is a fundamental right.
But sometimes society has to bear some hassles that are caused by freedom of speech to protect it from people who want to restrict it. Society cannot restrict people from expressing themselves freely whether it agrees with their views or not.
A reasonable restriction of freedom of expression is one that allows society to function smoothly and curbs interference in privacy. These restrictions are reasonable as they are essential to run the society smoothly. Reasonable restriction on this freedom thus:
- Should be made such that it does not hinder functioning of society.
- These restrictions are necessary and reasonable as they are necessary for the society to run.
Following are some reasonable restrictions on freedom of speech:
- Freedom of speech cannot interfere in someone’s privacy.
- Employees of Royal household of England are constrained by contract from disclosing any inner affairs of the royal household.
- Another example of putting restriction on freedom of speech is of film censor board. Censor board of films ban some portion of film to prevent adverse effect on society or disturbance of peace.