NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Part 2 Chapter 4 India’s External Relations for new CBSE session 2023-24. You can get here the English and Hindi Medium solutions of Class 12 Political Science Part 2 Politics in India since Independence chapter 4. These are free to use online or download.
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 4
Why did Nehru regard conduct of foreign relations as an essential indicator of independence? State any two reasons with examples to support your reading.
Nehru regarded conduct of foreign relations as an essential indicator of independence as:
- India always decided to conduct its foreign relations with respect to sovereignty of other nations and maintain peace and security through mutual cooperation to be reflected in the Directive Principles of State Policy on Article 51 of constitution.
- India has always advocated the policy of Non-alignment, made genuine efforts to reduce cold war tensions and contributed human resources to UN peace keeping operations.
- Hence, India took independent stand and got assistance from members of both the blocs.
The conduct of foreign affairs is an outcome of a two-way interaction between domestic compulsions and prevailing international climate. Take one example from India’s external relations in the 1960s to substantiate your answer.
The statement is justified to maximum extent to be proved during ‘Sino-Indian Conflict of 1962’ to dent India’s image at home and international level, India had to approach the Americans and the British for military assistance to tide over the issues. The Soviet Union remained neutral during the conflict:
- All these occurring, created a sense of national humiliation but strengthened a spirit of nationalism also on the other hand.
- Pt. Nehru was also criticised for his naive assessment of Chinese intentions and lack of military preparedness.
- Political mood of country began to change, when no-confidence motion against Nehru moved in and debated in Lok Sabha.
- ‘Sino-Indian Conflict’ split the Communist Party of India in 1964s split fraction formed communist party of India (CPI-M).
- Besides, the war with China alerted Indian leadership to volatile situation in the North east region.
- Apart from being isolated and extremely underdeveloped, this region posed the challenge of national integration in front of India.
Identify any two aspects of India’s foreign policy that you would like to retain and two that you would like to change, if you were to become a decision maker. Give reasons to support your position.
Two Aspects to be retained are:
- India always maintained its dignity and image of being a peace loving country by taking initiatives to bring about equality and understanding among the nations i.e. India supported to end Korean War in 1953, French rule in China, and US role in Vietnam.
- India’s initiatives for Non-alignment are also significant for the maintenance of mutual understanding and security. During post-cold war era also, NAM had become an effective tool to make the Security Council more effective and democratic.
Two Aspects to be changed:
- In the course of decade of 1962-72, India faced three wars and its peaceful image played a very limited role.
- Conflict with neighbouring countries like China and Pakistan derailed India’s concept of regional co-operation under SAARC.
Hence, India must adopt diplomatic and defensive postures in its foreign policy to maintain its independent entity.
Write short notes on India’s nuclear policy.
India’s Nuclear Policy:
- India advocated no first use and restates India’s commitment to global verifiable on non-discriminatory nuclear disarmament loading to a nuclear weapon free world.
- Pt. Nehru always promoted science and technology to build a modern India, i.e. initiated nuclear programme in the late 1940s under the guidance of Homi J. Bhabha.
- India was against nuclear weapons, hence pleaded many nuclear disarmament with superpowers.
- India always considered NPT as discriminatory and refused to sign on it.
- Even India’s first Nuclear Test in May 1974 was termed as a peaceful explosion and India argued to use nuclear power for peaceful purposes only.
Write short notes on Consensus in foreign policy matters.
Consensus in Foreign Policy Matters:
- Pt. Nehru played a crucial role in the architecture of setting National Agenda for foreign policy.
- Both as a Prime Minister and foreign minister he played profound influence in the formulation and implementation of India’s foreign policy from 1946 to 1964.
- When different parties came to power from time to time, foreign policy of India played a limited role in party politics.
India’s foreign policy was built around the principles of peace and cooperation. But India fought three wars in a space of ten years between 1962 and 1971. Would you say that this was a failure of the foreign policy? Or would you say that this was a result of international situation? Give reasons to support your answer.
No, this was not the failure of foreign policy but this was a result of international situation.
The Chinese Invasion 1962:
- Serious conflict arose when China annexed Tibet in 1950 and removed a historical buffer between two nations, and India did not oppose this openly.
- India grew uncomfortable, when China started suppressing Tibetan Culture.
- Another border dispute arose when China claimed Aksai Chin area and NEFA (much of the state in Arunachal Pradesh) within the Indian Territory.
- Despite long term correspondences and discussions, these issues have not been fully resolved even by top leaders of country.
- Hence, India had to indulge in the conflict.
War with Pakistan:
- A serious armed conflict between two countries began in 1965 with the initiative of Pakistan over Kashmir partition.
- In 1966, the hostilities came to an end with the UN intervention and Tashkent Agreement signed between Indian Prime Minister Lai Bahadur Shastri and Pakistan’s General Ayub Khan.
- The 1965 War added to India’s already difficult economic situation.
Bangladesh War of 1971:
- In 1970, Pakistan faced its biggest crisis in the way for a split verdict i.e. Zulficar Ali Bhutto’s Party emerged as winner in West Pakistan while Awami league led by “Sheikh Mujibur- Rehman” swept through East Pakistan.
- The Bengali population of East Pakistan had voted to protest against discriminatory attitude of West Pakistan, which was not acceptable to West Pakistan rulers.
- In 1971, Pakistani army arrested Sheikh Mujib and unleashed a region of terror on East Pakistan. This started people’s struggle to liberate Bangladesh from Pakistan.
- India had to bear 80 lakh refugees who fled from East Pakistan to take shelter. Hence, India had to extend moral and material support to the freedom struggle in Bangladesh.
- A full scale war between India and Pakistan in December 1971 broke out, when Pakistan attacked on Punjab and Rajasthan to be retaliated an attack from India.
- Within ten days the Indian army surrounded Dhaka and Pakistan had to surrender with Bangladesh as a free country, India declared a unilateral ceasefire and Shimla Agreement was signed between India and Pakistan in 1972.
Does India’s foreign policy reflect her desire to be an important regional power? Argue your case with the Bangladesh war of 1971 as an example.
Bangladesh War 1971:
- In 1970, Pakistan faced its biggest catastrophe in the way for a split verdict wherein Zulficar Ali Bhutto’s Party emerged as winner in West Pakistan while Awami League led by Sheikh Mujibur-Rehman swept through East Pakistan.
- The Bengali population of East Pakistan protested against the biased attitude of West Pakistan which was not acceptable to West Pakistan rulers.
- In 1971, Pakistani army arrested Sheikh Mujib and unleashed a reign of terror on East Pakistan. This made the people’s struggle to liberate Bangladesh from Pakistan.
- India had to bear 80 lakhs refugees who had fled from East Pakistan to take shelter. Hence, India had to give moral and material support to the freedom struggle in Bangladesh.
- A full scale war broke out between India and Pakistan in December 1971, when Pakistan attacked on Punjab and Rajasthan to be retaliated an attack from India. Within ten days the Indian army surrounded Dhaka and Pakistan had to surrender with Bangladesh as a free country.
- India declared a unilateral ceasefire and Shimla Agreement was signed between India and Pakistan in 1972.
- Most people in India saw this moment as the glory of India and India’s growing military powers.
On the above mentioned reference, we may conclude that India’s foreign Policy reflects her wish to be an important regional power which was revealed during the Bangladesh war of 1971.
How does political leadership of a nation affect its foreign policy? Explain this with the help of examples from India’s foreign policy.
Foreign policy of any country is the mirror of national interests as in India:
- During non-congress government in 1977, Janata Party announced to follow non-alignment genuinely. This implied that the pro-Soviet tilt in foreign policy will be corrected. Since then, all governments took initiatives to restore better relations with China and entered into close ties with the US.
- In Post 1990 period the ruling parties were criticised for their pro-US foreign policy. During this period Russia had lost its global pre-eminence despite it has been India’s good friend. Hence, India’s foreign policy shifted to a more pro-US strategy.
- Besides, the contemporary international situation is also more influenced by economic interests than military interests so made an impact on India’s foreign policy i.e. Indo-Pakistan relations have witnessed new developments.
Read the Passage:
Broadly, non-alignment means not tying yourself off with military blocs…. It means trying to view things, as far as possible, not from the military point of view, though that has to come in sometimes, but independently, and trying to maintain friendly relations with all countries.—-Jawaharlal Nehru
Why does Nehru want to keep off military blocs?
Nehru wanted to keep off military blocs to maintain friendly and peaceful relation with all nations of world as well as to maintain India’s uniqueness at international stage.
Do you think that the Indo-Soviet friendship treaty violated the principle of non-alignment? Give reasons for your answer.
No, the Indo-Soviet friendship treaty did not violate non-alignment because it was not to maintain military relations but to maintain diplomatic friendly relations.
If there were no military blocs, do you think non-alignment would have been unnecessary?
NAM emphasizes on disarmament, de-colonization and terrorism except staying away from military blocs.